The Georeferencer Plugin is a tool for generating world files for rasters. It allows you to reference rasters to geographic or projected coordinate systems by creating a new GeoTiff or by adding a world file to the existing image. The basic approach to georeferencing a raster is to locate points on the raster for which you can accurately determine coordinates.
Generate GDAL Script
Load GCP Points
Save GCP Points As
Move GCP Point
Zoom To Layer
Link Georeferencer to QGIS
Link QGIS to Georeferencer
Full histogram stretch
Local histogram stretch
Table Georeferencer: Georeferencer Tools
As X and Y coordinates (DMS (dd mm ss.ss), DD (dd.dd) or projected coordinates (mmmm.mm)), which correspond with the selected point on the image, two alternative procedures can be used:
The raster itself sometimes provides crosses with coordinates “written” on the image. In this case, you can enter the coordinates manually.
Using already georeferenced layers. This can be either vector or raster data that contain the same objects/features that you have on the image that you want to georeference and with the projection that you want for your image. In this case, you can enter the coordinates by clicking on the reference dataset loaded in the QGIS map canvas.
The usual procedure for georeferencing an image involves selecting multiple points on the raster, specifying their coordinates, and choosing a relevant transformation type. Based on the input parameters and data, the plugin will compute the world file parameters. The more coordinates you provide, the better the result will be.
The first step is to start QGIS, load the Georeferencer Plugin (see The Plugins Dialog) and click on , which appears in the QGIS menu bar. The Georeferencer Plugin dialog appears as shown in figure_georeferencer_dialog.
For this example, we are using a topo sheet of South Dakota from SDGS. It can
later be visualized together with the data from the GRASS
location. You can download the topo sheet here:
To start georeferencing an unreferenced raster, we must load it using the button. The raster will show up in the main working area of the dialog. Once the raster is loaded, we can start to enter reference points.
Using the Add Point button, add points to the main working area and enter their coordinates (see Figure figure_georeferencer_add_points). For this procedure you have three options:
Click on a point in the raster image and enter the X and Y coordinates manually.
Continue entering points. You should have at least four points, and the more coordinates you can provide, the better the result will be. There are additional tools on the plugin dialog to zoom and pan the working area in order to locate a relevant set of GCP points.
The points that are added to the map will be stored in a separate text file
[filename].points) usually together with the raster image. This allows
us to reopen the Georeferencer plugin at a later date and add new points or delete
existing ones to optimize the result. The points file contains values of the
mapX, mapY, pixelX, pixelY. You can use the
Load GCP points and Save GCP points as buttons to
manage the files.
After you have added your GCPs to the raster image, you need to define the transformation settings for the georeferencing process.
Depending on how many ground control points you have captured, you may want to use different transformation algorithms. Choice of transformation algorithm is also dependent on the type and quality of input data and the amount of geometric distortion that you are willing to introduce to the final result.
Currently, the following Transformation types are available:
The Linear algorithm is used to create a world file and is different from the other algorithms, as it does not actually transform the raster. This algorithm likely won’t be sufficient if you are dealing with scanned material.
The Helmert transformation performs simple scaling and rotation transformations.
The Polynomial algorithms 1-3 are among the most widely used algorithms introduced to match source and destination ground control points. The most widely used polynomial algorithm is the second-order polynomial transformation, which allows some curvature. First-order polynomial transformation (affine) preserves collinearity and allows scaling, translation and rotation only.
The Thin Plate Spline (TPS) algorithm is a more modern georeferencing method, which is able to introduce local deformations in the data. This algorithm is useful when very low quality originals are being georeferenced.
The Projective transformation is a linear rotation and translation of coordinates.
The type of resampling you choose will likely depending on your input data and the ultimate objective of the exercise. If you don’t want to change statistics of the image, you might want to choose ‘Nearest neighbour’, whereas a ‘Cubic resampling’ will likely provide a more smoothed result.
It is possible to choose between five different resampling methods:
There are several options that need to be defined for the georeferenced output raster.
The Create world file checkbox is only available if you decide to use the linear transformation type, because this means that the raster image actually won’t be transformed. In this case, the Output raster field is not activated, because only a new world file will be created.
For all other transformation types, you have to define an Output raster. As default, a new file ([filename]_modified) will be created in the same folder together with the original raster image.
As a next step, you have to define the Target SRS (Spatial Reference System) for the georeferenced raster (see Working with Projections).
If you like, you can generate a pdf map and also a pdf report. The report includes information about the used transformation parameters, an image of the residuals and a list with all GCPs and their RMS errors.
Clicking on the Raster properties option in the Settings menu opens the Layer properties dialog of the raster file that you want to georeference.