Interface do QGIS

When QGIS starts, you are presented with the GUI as shown below (the numbers 1 through 5 in yellow ovals refer to the six major areas of the interface as discussed below):

Figure QGIS GUI 1:

../../../_images/startup.png

QGIS GUI with Alaska sample data nix

Nota

Suas decorações de janela (barra de título, etc) podem parecer diferentes dependendo do seu sistema operacional e gerenciador de janelas.

A interface QGIS é dividida em cinco áreas:

  1. Barra de Menu

  2. Barra de Ferraementas

  3. Legenda do Mapa

  4. Visualização do mapa

  5. Barra de Status

Estes cinco componentes da interface gráfica do QGIS serão descritos com maior detalhe dentro da próximas seções. Mais duas seções apresentarão atalhos de teclado e ajuda de contexto.

Barra de Ferramentas

A barra de ferramentas permite o acesso à maioria das mesmas funções dos menus, além de ferramentas adicionais para interagir com o mapa. Cada item da barra de ferramentas pop-up tem ajuda disponível. Mantenha o mouse sobre o item e uma breve descrição do propósito da ferramenta será exibido.

Every menubar can be moved around according to your needs. Additionally every menubar can be switched off using your right mouse button context menu holding the mouse over the toolbars (read also Painéis e Barra de Ferramentas).

Dica

Restaurar barra de ferramentas

If you have accidentally hidden all your toolbars, you can get them back by choosing menu option Settings ‣ Toolbars ‣. If a toolbar disappears under Windows, which seems to be a problem in QGIS from time to time, you have to remove \HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\QuantumGIS\qgis\UI\state in the registry. When you restart QGIS, the key is written again with the default state, and all toolbars are visible again.

Legenda do Mapa

The map legend area lists all the layers in the project. The checkbox in each legend entry can be used to show or hide the layer.

Uma camada pode ser selecionada e arrastada para cima ou para baixo na legenda para mudar a z-ordenação. Z-ordenação significa que as camadas listadas mais perto do topo da legenda são desenhadas sobre camadas listadas mais abaixo na legenda.

Layers in the legend window can be organised into groups. There are two ways to do so:

  1. Right click in the legend window and choose Add Group. Type in a name for the group and press Enter. Now click on an existing layer and drag it onto the group.
  2. Select some layers, right click in the legend window and choose Group Selected. The selected layers will automatically be placed in a new group.

To bring a layer out of a group you can drag it out, or right click on it and choose Make to toplevel item. Groups can be nested inside other groups.

A caixa de seleção de um grupo vai mostrar ou ocultar todas as camadas do grupo com apenas um clique.

The content of the right mouse button context menu depends on whether the selected legend item is a raster or a vector layer. For GRASS vector layers mActionToggleEditing Toggle editing is not available. See section Digitalizando e editando uma camada vetorial GRASS for information on editing GRASS vector layers.

Menu botão direito do mouse para camadas raster

  • Zoom to layer extent
  • Zoom to best scale (100 %)
  • Show in overview
  • Remove
  • Set Layer CRS
  • Set Project CRS from Layer
  • Propriedades...

  • Rename
  • Copy Style
  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

Additionally, according to layer position and selection

  • Make to toplevel item
  • Group Selected

Menu botão direito do mouse para camadas vetor

  • Zoom to layer extent
  • Show in overview
  • Remove
  • Set Layer CRS
  • Set Project CRS from Layer
  • Open attribute table
  • Toggle editing (not available for GRASS layers)
  • Save as
  • Save selection as
  • Query
  • Show Feature Count
  • Propriedades...

  • Rename
  • Copy Style
  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

Additionally, according to layer position and selection

  • Make to toplevel item
  • Group Selected

Menu botão direito do mouse para grupo de camadas

  • Zoom to group
  • Remove
  • Set group CRS
  • Rename
  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

It is possible to select more than one layer or group at the same time by holding down the Ctrl key while selecting the layers with the left mouse button. You can then move all selected layers to a new group at the same time.

You are also able to delete more than one Layer or Group at once by selecting several Layers with the Ctrl key and pressing Ctrl+D afterwards. This way all selected Layers or groups will be removed from the layerlist.

Working with the Legend independent layer order

Since QGIS 1.8 there is a widget that allows to define a legend independent drawing order. You can activate it in the menu Settings ‣ Panels. Determine the drawing order of the layers in the map view here. Doing so makes it possible to order your layers in order of importance, for example, but to still display them in the correct order (see figure_layer_order). Checking the checkbox control rendering order box underneath the list of layers will cause a revert to default behavior.

Figure Layer Order:

../../../_images/layer_order.png

Define a legend independent layer order nix

Visualização do mapa

This is the “business end” of QGIS - maps are displayed in this area! The map displayed in this window will depend on the vector and raster layers you have chosen to load (see sections that follow for more information on how to load layers). The map view can be panned (shifting the focus of the map display to another region) and zoomed in and out. Various other operations can be performed on the map as described in the toolbar description above. The map view and the legend are tightly bound to each other - the maps in view reflect changes you make in the legend area.

Dica

Ampliando o mapa com a roda do mouse

You can use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out on the map. Place the mouse cursor inside the map area and roll the wheel forward (away from you) to zoom in and backwards (towards you) to zoom out. The mouse cursor position is the center where the zoom occurs. You can customize the behavior of the mouse wheel zoom using the Map tools tab under the Settings ‣ Options menu.

Dica

Percorrendo o mapa com as setas e a barra de espaço

Você pode usar as setas do teclado para se deslocar no mapa. Coloque o cursor do mouse dentro da área do mapa e clique na seta para a direita para pan Leste, seta para a esquerda para pan Oeste, seta para cima para pan Norte e para baixo seta para deslocar Sul. Você também pode deslocar o mapa utilizando a barra de espaço: basta mover o mouse enquanto pressiona barra de espaço.

Barra de Status

A barra de status mostra sua posição atual nas coordenadas do mapa (por exemplo, metros ou graus decimais) como o ponteiro do mouse é movido através da visualização do mapa. Para a esquerda da tela de coordenadas na barra de status tem um pequeno botão que irá alternar entre mostrar posição coordenada ou como você está visualizando as extensões do mapa como pan e zoom in e out.

Next to the coordinate display you find the scale display. It shows the scale of the map view. If you zoom in or out QGIS shows you the current scale. Since QGIS 1.8 there is a scale selector which allows you to choose between predefined scales from 1:500 until 1:1000000.

Uma barra de progresso na barra de status mostra o progresso de renderização como cada camada é atraída para a visualização do mapa. Em alguns casos, como a coleta de estatísticas em camadas raster, a barra de progresso será usada para mostrar o status de operações demoradas.

If a new plugin or a plugin update is available, you will see a message at the far right of the status bar. On the right side of the status bar is a small checkbox which can be used to temporarily prevent layers being rendered to the map view (see Section Renderização below). The icon mIconStopRendering immediately stops the current map rendering process.

To the right of the render functions you find the EPSG code of the current project CRS and a projector icon. Clicking on this opens the projection properties for the current project.

Dica

Calculando a escala correta do seu Mapa da tela/visualização

When you start QGIS, degrees is the default unit, and it tells QGIS that any coordinate in your layer is in degrees. To get correct scale values, you can either change this to meter manually in the General tab under Settings ‣ Project Properties or you can select a project Coordinate Reference System (CRS) clicking on the mIconProjectionDisabled CRS status icon in the lower right-hand corner of the statusbar. In the last case, the units are set to what the project projection specifies, e.g. ‘+units=m’.