Working with the Attribute Table

The attribute table displays information on features of a selected layer. Each row in the table represents a feature (with or without geometry), and each column contains a particular piece of information about the feature. Features in the table can be searched, selected, moved or even edited.

Foreword: Spatial and non-spatial tables

QGIS allows you to load spatial and non-spatial layers. This currently includes tables supported by OGR and delimited text, as well as the PostgreSQL, MSSQL, SpatiaLite, DB2 and Oracle provider. All loaded layers are listed in the Layers panel. Whether a layer is spatially enabled or not determines whether you can interact with it on the map.

Non-spatial tables can be browsed and edited using the attribute table view. Furthermore, they can be used for field lookups. For example, you can use columns of a non-spatial table to define attribute values, or a range of values that are allowed, to be added to a specific vector layer during digitizing. Have a closer look at the edit widget in section Attributes Form Properties to find out more.

Introducing the attribute table interface

To open the attribute table for a vector layer, activate the layer by clicking on it in the Layers Panel. Then, from the main Layer menu, choose openTable Open Attribute Table. It is also possible to right-click on the layer and choose openTable Open Attribute Table from the drop-down menu, or to click on the openTable Open Attribute Table button in the Attributes toolbar. If you prefer shortcuts, F6 will open the attribute table. Shift+F6 will open the attribute table filtered to selected features and Ctrl+F6 will open the attribute table filtered to visible features.

This will open a new window that displays the feature attributes for the layer (figure_attributes_table). According to the setting in Settings ‣ Options ‣ Data sources menu, the attribute table will open in a docked window or a regular window. The total number of features in the layer and the number of currently selected/filtered features are shown in the attribute table title, as well as if the layer is spatially limited.


Attribute Table for regions layer

The buttons at the top of the attribute table window provide the following functionality:




Default Shortcut


Toggle editing mode

Enable editing functionalities



Toggle multi edit mode

Update multiple fields of many features


Save Edits

Save current modifications



Reload the table


Add feature

Add new geometryless feature


Delete selected features

Remove selected features from the layer


Cut selected features to clipboard



Copy selected features to clipboard



Paste features from clipboard

Insert new features from copied ones



Select features using an Expression


Select All

Select all features in the layer



Invert selection

Invert the current selection in the layer



Deselect all

Deselect all features in the current layer



Filter/Select features using form



Move selected to top

Move selected rows to the top of the table


Pan map to the selected rows



Zoom map to the selected rows



New field

Add a new field to the data source



Delete field

Remove a field from the data source



Open field calculator

Update field for many features in a row



Conditional formatting

Enable table formatting


Dock attribute table

Allows to dock/undock the attribute table



Lists the actions related to the layer

Table Attribute 1: Available Tools


Depending on the format of the data and the OGR library built with your QGIS version, some tools may not be available.

Below these buttons is the Quick Field Calculation bar (enabled only in edit mode), which allows to quickly apply calculations to all or part of the features in the layer. This bar uses the same expressions as the calculateField Field Calculator (see Editing attribute values).

Table view vs Form view

QGIS provides two view modes to easily manipulate data in the attribute table:

  • The openTable Table view, displays values of multiple features in a tabular mode, each row representing a feature and each column a field.

  • And the formView Form view shows feature identifiers in a first panel and displays only the attributes of the clicked identifier in the second one. Form view uses the layer fields configuration (see Attributes Form Properties).

You can switch from one mode to the other by clicking the corresponding icon at the bottom right of the dialog.

You can also specify the Default view mode at the opening of the attribute table in Settings ‣ Options ‣ Data Sources menu. It can be ‘Remember last view’, ‘Table view’ or ‘Form view’.


Attribute table in form view (top) vs table view (bottom)

Configuring the columns

Right-click in a column header when in table view to have access to tools that help you configure what can be displayed in the attribute table and how.

Hiding and organizing columns and enabling actions

By right-clicking in a column header, you can choose to hide it from the attribute table. To change several columns behavior at once, unhide a column or change the order of the columns, choose Organize columns …. In the new dialog, you can:

  • check/uncheck columns you want to show or hide

  • drag-and-drop items to reorder the columns in the attribute table. Note that this change is for the table rendering and does not alter the fields order in the layer datasource

  • enable a new virtual Actions column that displays in each row a drop-down box or button list of actions for each row, see Actions Properties for more information about actions.

Resizing columns widths

Columns width can be set through a right-click on the column header and select either:

  • Set width… to enter the desired value. By default, the current value is displayed in the widget

  • Autosize to resize at the best fit the column.

It can also be changed by dragging the boundary on the right of the column heading. The new size of the column is maintained for the layer, and restored at the next opening of the attribute table.

Sorting columns

The table can be sorted by any column, by clicking on the column header. A small arrow indicates the sort order (downward pointing means descending values from the top row down, upward pointing means ascending values from the top row down). You can also choose to sort the rows with the sort option of the column header context menu and write an expression, e.g. to sort the row using multiple columns you can write concat(col0, col1).

In form view, features identifier can be sorted using the sort Sort by preview expression option.


Sorting based on columns of different types

Trying to sort an attribute table based on columns of string and numeric types may lead to unexpected result because of the concat("USE", "ID") expression returning string values (ie, 'Borough105' < 'Borough6'). You can workaround this by using eg concat("USE", lpad("ID", 3, 0)) which returns 'Borough105' > 'Borough006'.

Formatting of table cells using conditions

Conditional formatting settings can be used to highlight in the attribute table features you may want to put a particular focus on, using custom conditions on feature’s:

  • geometry (e.g., identifying multi-parts features, small area ones or in a defined map extent…);

  • or field value (e.g., comparing values to a threshold, identifying empty cells…).

You can enable the conditional formatting panel clicking on conditionalFormatting at the top right of the attributes window in table view (not available in form view).

The new panel allows user to add new rules to format rendering of radioButtonOnField or radioButtonOffFull row. Adding new rule opens a form to define:

  • the name of the rule;

  • a condition using any of the expression builder functions;

  • the formatting: it can be choosen from a list of predefined formats or created based on properties like:

    • background and text colors;

    • use of icon;

    • bold, italic, underline, or strikeout;

    • font.


Conditional Formatting of an attribute table

Interacting with features in an attribute table

Selecting features

In table view, each row in the attribute table displays the attributes of a unique feature in the layer. Selecting a row selects the feature and likewise, selecting a feature in the map canvas (in case of geometry enabled layer) selects the row in the attribute table. If the set of features selected in the map canvas (or attribute table) is changed, then the selection is also updated in the attribute table (or map canvas) accordingly.

Rows can be selected by clicking on the row number on the left side of the row. Multiple rows can be marked by holding the Ctrl key. A continuous selection can be made by holding the Shift key and clicking on several row headers on the left side of the rows. All rows between the current cursor position and the clicked row are selected. Moving the cursor position in the attribute table, by clicking a cell in the table, does not change the row selection. Changing the selection in the main canvas does not move the cursor position in the attribute table.

In form view of the attribute table, features are by default identified in the left panel by the value of their displayed field (see Display Properties). This identifier can be replaced using the drop-down list at the top of the panel, either by selecting an existing field or using a custom expression. You can also choose to sort the list of features from the drop-down menu.

Click a value in the left panel to display the feature’s attributes in the right one. To select a feature, you need to click inside the square symbol at the left of the identifier. By default, the symbol turns into yellow. Like in the table view, you can perform multiple feature selection using the keyboard combinations previously exposed.

Beyond selecting features with the mouse, you can perform automatic selection based on feature’s attribute using tools available in the attribute table toolbar, such as (see section Automatic selection and following one for more information and use case):

  • expressionSelect Select By Expression…

  • formSelect Select Features By Value…

  • deselectAll Deselect Features from All Layers

  • selectAll Select All Features

  • invertSelection Invert Feature Selection.

It is also possible to select features using the Filtering and selecting features using forms.

Filtering features

Once you have selected features in the attribute table, you may want to display only these records in the table. This can be easily done using the Show Selected Features item from the drop-down list at the bottom left of the attribute table dialog. This list offers the following filters:

  • Show All Features

  • Show Selected Features

  • Show Features visible on map

  • Show Edited and New Features

  • Field Filter - allows the user to filter based on value of a field: choose a column from a list, type a value and press Enter to filter. Then, only the matching features are shown in the attribute table.

  • Advanced filter (Expression) - Opens the expression builder dialog. Within it, you can create complex expressions to match table rows. For example, you can filter the table using more than one field. When applied, the filter expression will show up at the bottom of the form.

It is also possible to filter features using forms.


Filtering records out of the attribute table does not filter features out of the layer; they are simply momentaneously hidden from the table and can be accessed from the map canvas or by removing the filter. For filters that do hide features from the layer, use the Query Builder.


Update datasource filtering with Show Features Visible on Map

When for performance reasons, features shown in attribute table are spatially limited to the canvas extent at its opening (see Data Source Options for a how-to), selecting Show Features Visible on Map on a new canvas extent updates the spatial restriction.

Filtering and selecting features using forms

Clicking the filterMap Filter/Select features using form or pressing Ctrl+F will make the attribute table dialog switch to form view and replace each widget with its search variant.

From this point onwards, this tool functionality is similar to the one described in Select Features By Value, where you can find descriptions of all operators and selecting modes.


Attribute table filtered by the filter form

When selecting / filtering features from the attribute table, there is a Filter features button that allows defining and refining filters. Its use triggers the Advanced filter (Expression) option and displays the corresponding filter expression in an editable text widget at the bottom of the form.

If there are already filtered features, you can refine the filter using the drop-down list next to the Filter features button. The options are:

  • Filter within (“AND”)

  • Extend filter (“OR”)

To clear the filter, either select the Show all features option from the bottom left pull-down menu, or clear the expression and click Apply or press Enter.

Using action on features

Users have several possibilities to manipulate feature with the contextual menu like:

  • Select all (Ctrl+A) the features;

  • Copy the content of a cell in the clipboard with Copy cell content;

  • Zoom to feature without having to select it beforehand;

  • Pan to feature without having to select it beforehand;

  • Flash feature, to highlight it in the map canvas;

  • Open form: it toggles attribute table into form view with a focus on the clicked feature.


Copy cell content button

If you want to use attribute data in external programs (such as Excel, LibreOffice, QGIS or a custom web application), select one or more row(s) and use the copySelected Copy selected rows to clipboard button or press Ctrl+C.

In Settings ‣ Options ‣ Data Sources menu you can define the format to paste to with Copy features as dropdown list:

  • Plain text, no geometry,

  • Plain text, WKT geometry,

  • GeoJSON

You can also display a list of actions in this contextual menu. This is enabled in the Layer properties ‣ Actions tab. See Actions Properties for more information on actions.

Saving selected features as new layer

The selected features can be saved as any OGR-supported vector format and also transformed into another coordinate reference system (CRS). In the contextual menu of the layer, from the Layers panel, click on Export ‣ Save selected features as… to define the name of the output dataset, its format and CRS (see section Creating new layers from an existing layer). You’ll notice that checkbox Save only selected features is checked. It is also possible to specify OGR creation options within the dialog.

Editing attribute values

Editing attribute values can be done by:

  • typing the new value directly in the cell, whether the attribute table is in table or form view. Changes are hence done cell by cell, feature by feature;

  • using the field calculator: update in a row a field that may already exist or to be created but for multiple features. It can be used to create virtual fields;

  • using the quick field calculation bar: same as above but for only existing field;

  • or using the multi edit mode: update in a row multiple fields for multiple features.

Using the Field Calculator

The calculateField Field Calculator button in the attribute table allows you to perform calculations on the basis of existing attribute values or defined functions, for instance, to calculate length or area of geometry features. The results can be used to update an existing field, or written to a new field (that can be a virtual one).

The field calculator is available on any layer that supports edit. When you click on the field calculator icon the dialog opens (see figure_field_calculator). If the layer is not in edit mode, a warning is displayed and using the field calculator will cause the layer to be put in edit mode before the calculation is made.

Based on the Expression Builder dialog, the field calculator dialog offers a complete interface to define an expression and apply it to an existing or a newly created field. To use the field calculator dialog, you must select whether you want to:

  1. apply calculation on the whole layer or on selected features only

  2. create a new field for the calculation or update an existing one.


Field Calculator

If you choose to add a new field, you need to enter a field name, a field type (integer, real, date or string) and if needed, the total field length and the field precision. For example, if you choose a field length of 10 and a field precision of 3, it means you have 7 digits before the dot, and 3 digits for the decimal part.

A short example illustrates how field calculator works when using the Expression tab. We want to calculate the length in km of the railroads layer from the QGIS sample dataset:

  1. Load the shapefile railroads.shp in QGIS and press openTable Open Attribute Table.

  2. Click on toggleEditing Toggle editing mode and open the calculateField Field Calculator dialog.

  3. Select the checkbox Create a new field checkbox to save the calculations into a new field.

  4. Set Output field name to length_km

  5. Select Decimal number (real) as Output field type

  6. Set the Output field length to 10 and the Precision to 3

  7. Double click on $length in the Geometry group to add the length of the geometry into the Field calculator expression box.

  8. Complete the expression by typing / 1000 in the Field calculator expression box and click OK.

  9. You can now find a new length_km field in the attribute table.

Creating a Virtual Field

A virtual field is a field based on an expression calculated on the fly, meaning that its value is automatically updated as soon as an underlying parameter changes. The expression is set once; you no longer need to recalculate the field each time underlying values change. For example, you may want to use a virtual field if you need area to be evaluated as you digitize features or to automatically calculate a duration between dates that may change (e.g., using now() function).


Use of Virtual Fields

  • Virtual fields are not permanent in the layer attributes, meaning that they’re only saved and available in the project file they’ve been created.

  • A field can be set virtual only at its creation and the expression used can’t be changed later: you’ll need to delete and recreate that field.

Using the Quick Field Calculation Bar

While Field calculator is always available, the quick field calculation bar on top of the attribute table is only visible if the layer is in edit mode. Thanks to the expression engine, it offers a quicker access to edit an already existing field:

  1. Select the field to update in the drop-down list.

  2. Fill the textbox with a value, an expression you directly write or build using the expression expression button.

  3. Click on Update All, Update Selected or Update Filtered button according to your need.


Quick Field Calculation Bar

Editing multiple fields

Unlike the previous tools, multi edit mode allows multiple attributes of different features to be edited simultaneously. When the layer is toggled to edit, multi edit capabilities are accessible:

  • using the multiEdit Toggle multi edit mode button from the toolbar inside the attribute table dialog;

  • or selecting Edit ‣ multiEdit Modify attributes of selected features menu.


Unlike the tool from the attribute table, hitting the Edit ‣ Modify Attributes of Selected Features option provides you with a modal dialog to fill attributes changes. Hence, features selection is required before execution.

In order to edit multiple fields in a row:

  1. Select the features you want to edit.

  2. From the attribute table toolbar, click the multiEdit button. This will toggle the dialog to its form view. Feature selection could also be made at this step.

  3. At the right side of the attribute table, fields (and values) of selected features are shown. New widgets appear next to each field allowing for display of the current multi edit state:

    • multiEditMixedValues The field contains different values for selected features. It’s shown empty and each feature will keep its original value. You can reset the value of the field from the drop-down list of the widget.

    • multiEditSameValues All selected features have the same value for this field and the value displayed in the form will be kept.

    • multiEditChangedValues The field has been edited and the entered value will be applied to all the selected features. A message appears at the top of the dialog, inviting you to either apply or reset your modification.

    Clicking any of these widgets allows you to either set the current value for the field or reset to original value, meaning that you can roll back changes on a field-by-field basis.


    Editing fields of multiple features

  4. Make the changes to the fields you want.

  5. Click on Apply changes in the upper message text or any other feature in the left panel.

Changes will apply to all selected features. If no feature is selected, the whole table is updated with your changes. Modifications are made as a single edit command. So pressing undo Undo will rollback the attribute changes for all selected features at once.


Multi edit mode is only available for auto generated and drag and drop forms (see Customizing a form for your data); it is not supported by custom ui forms.

Creating one or many to many relations

Relations are a technique often used in databases. The concept is that features (rows) of different layers (tables) can belong to each other.

Introducing 1-N relations

As an example you have a layer with all regions of alaska (polygon) which provides some attributes about its name and region type and a unique id (which acts as primary key).

Then you get another point layer or table with information about airports that are located in the regions and you also want to keep track of these. If you want to add them to the regions layer, you need to create a one to many relation using foreign keys, because there are several airports in most regions.


Alaska region with airports

Layers in 1-N relations

QGIS makes no difference between a table and a vector layer. Basically, a vector layer is a table with a geometry. So you can add your table as a vector layer. To demonstrate the 1-n relation, you can load the regions shapefile and the airports shapefile which has a foreign key field (fk_region) to the layer regions. This means, that each airport belongs to exactly one region while each region can have any number of airports (a typical one to many relation).

Foreign keys in 1-N relations

In addition to the already existing attributes in the airports attribute table, you’ll need another field fk_region which acts as a foreign key (if you have a database, you will probably want to define a constraint on it).

This field fk_region will always contain an id of a region. It can be seen like a pointer to the region it belongs to. And you can design a custom edit form for editing and QGIS takes care of the setup. It works with different providers (so you can also use it with shape and csv files) and all you have to do is to tell QGIS the relations between your tables.

Defining 1-N relations (Relation Manager)

The first thing we are going to do is to let QGIS know about the relations between the layers. This is done in Project ‣ Project Properties…. Open the Relations tab and click on Add Relation.

  • Name is going to be used as a title. It should be a human readable string, describing, what the relation is used for. We will just call say Airports in this case.

  • Referenced Layer (Parent) also considered as parent layer, is the one with the primary key, pointed to, so here it is the regions layer

  • Referenced Field is the primary key of the referenced layer so it is ID

  • Referencing Layer (Child) also considered as child layer, is the one with the foreign key field on it. In our case, this is the airports layer

  • Referencing Field will say, which field points to the other layer so this is fk_region in this case

  • Id will be used for internal purposes and has to be unique. You may need it to build custom forms. If you leave it empty, one will be generated for you but you can assign one yourself to get one that is easier to handle

  • Relationship strength sets the strength of the relation between the parent and the child layer. The default Association type means that the parent layer is simply linked to the child one while the Composition type allows you to duplicate also the child features when duplicating the parent ones.


Relation Manager

Forms for 1-N relations

Now that QGIS knows about the relation, it will be used to improve the forms it generates. As we did not change the default form method (autogenerated) it will just add a new widget in our form. So let’s select the layer region in the legend and use the identify tool. Depending on your settings, the form might open directly or you will have to choose to open it in the identification dialog under actions.


Identification dialog regions with relation to airports

As you can see, the airports assigned to this particular region are all shown in a table. And there are also some buttons available. Let’s review them shortly:

  • The toggleEditing button is for toggling the edit mode. Be aware that it toggles the edit mode of the airport layer, although we are in the feature form of a feature from the region layer. But the table is representing features of the airport layer.

  • The saveEdits button is for saving all the edits.

  • The newTableRow button will add a new record to the airport layer attribute table. And it will assign the new airport to the current region by default.

  • The duplicateFeature button allows you to copy one or more child features.

  • The deleteSelected button will delete the selected airport permanently.

  • The link symbol will open a new dialog where you can select any existing airport which will then be assigned to the current region. This may be handy if you created the airport on the wrong region by accident.

  • The unlink symbol will unlink the selected airport from the current region, leaving them unassigned (the foreign key is set to NULL) effectively.

  • With the zoomToSelected button you can zoom the map to the selected child features.

  • The two buttons formView and openTable to the right switch between table view and form view where the later let’s you view all the airports in their respective form.

In the above example the referencing layer has geometries (so it isn’t just an alphanumeric table) so the above steps will create an entry in the layer attribute table that has no corresponding geometric feature. To add the geometry:

  1. Choose openTable Open Attribute Table for the referencing layer.

  2. Select the record that has been added previously within the feature form of the referenced layer.

  3. Use the addPart Add Part digitizing tool to attach a geometry to the selected attributes table record.

If you work on the airport table, the widget Relation Reference is automatically set up for the fk_region field (the one used to create the relation), see Relation Reference widget.

In the airport form you will see the formView button at the right side of the fk_region field: if you click on the button the form of the region layer will be opened. This widget allows you to easily and quickly open the forms of the linked parent features.


Identification dialog airport with relation to regions

The Relation Reference widget has also an option to embed the form of the parent layer within the child one. It is available in the Properties ‣ Attributes Form menu of the airport layer: select the fk_region field and check the Show embedded form option.

If you look at the feature dialog now, you will see, that the form of the region is embedded inside the airports form and will even have a combobox, which allows you to assign the current airport to another region.


Moreover if you toggle the editing mode of the airport layer, the fk_region field has also an autocompleter function: while typing you will see all the values of the id field of the region layer.

Introducing many-to-many (N-M) relations

N-M relations are many-to-many relations between two tables. For instance, the airports and airlines layers: an airport receives several airline companies and an airline company flies to several airports.

This SQL code creates the three tables we need for an N-M relationship in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS schema named locations. You can run the code using the Database ‣ DB Manager… for PostGIS or external tools such as pgAdmin. The airports table stores the airports layer and the airlines table stores the airlines layer. In both tables few fields are used for clarity. The tricky part is the airports_airlines table. We need it to list all airlines for all airports (or vice versa). This kind of table is known as a pivot table. The constraints in this table force that an airport can be associated with an airline only if both already exist in their layers.

CREATE SCHEMA locations;

CREATE TABLE locations.airports
   id serial NOT NULL,
   geom geometry(Point, 4326) NOT NULL,
   airport_name text NOT NULL,
   CONSTRAINT airports_pkey PRIMARY KEY (id)

CREATE INDEX airports_geom_idx ON locations.airports USING gist (geom);

CREATE TABLE locations.airlines
   id serial NOT NULL,
   geom geometry(Point, 4326) NOT NULL,
   airline_name text NOT NULL,
   CONSTRAINT airlines_pkey PRIMARY KEY (id)

CREATE INDEX airlines_geom_idx ON locations.airlines USING gist (geom);

CREATE TABLE locations.airports_airlines
   id serial NOT NULL,
   airport_fk integer NOT NULL,
   airline_fk integer NOT NULL,
   CONSTRAINT airports_airlines_pkey PRIMARY KEY (id),
   CONSTRAINT airports_airlines_airport_fk_fkey FOREIGN KEY (airport_fk)
      REFERENCES locations.airports (id)
   CONSTRAINT airports_airlines_airline_fk_fkey FOREIGN KEY (airline_fk)
      REFERENCES locations.airlines (id)

Instead of PostgreSQL you can also use GeoPackage. In this case, the three tables can be created manually using the Database ‣ DB Manager…. In GeoPackage there are no schemas so the locations prefix is not needed.

Foreign key constraints in airports_airlines table can´t be created using Table ‣ Create Table… or Table ‣ Edit Table… so they should be created using Database ‣ SQL Window…. GeoPackage doesn’t support ADD CONSTRAINT statements so the airports_airlines table should be created in two steps:

  1. Set up the table only with the id field using Table ‣ Create Table…

  2. Using Database ‣ SQL Window…, type and execute this SQL code:

    ALTER TABLE airports_airlines
       ADD COLUMN airport_fk INTEGER
       REFERENCES airports (id)
    ALTER TABLE airports_airlines
       ADD COLUMN airline_fk INTEGER
       REFERENCES airlines (id)

Then in QGIS, you should set up two one-to-many relations as explained above:

  • a relation between airlines table and the pivot table;

  • and a second one between airports table and the pivot table.

An easier way to do it (only for PostgreSQL) is using the Discover Relations in Project ‣ Properties ‣ Relations. QGIS will automatically read all relations in your database and you only have to select the two you need. Remember to load the three tables in the QGIS project first.


Relations and autodiscover

In case you want to remove an airport or an airline, QGIS won’t remove the associated record(s) in airports_airlines table. This task will be made by the database if we specify the right constraints in the pivot table creation as in the current example.


Combining N-M relation with automatic transaction group

You should enable the transaction mode in Project Properties ‣ Data Sources ‣ when working on such context. QGIS should be able to add or update row(s) in all tables (airlines, airports and the pivot tables).

Finally we have to select the right cardinalilty in the Layer Properties ‣ Attributes Form for the airports and airlines layers. For the first one we should choose the airlines (id) option and for the second one the airports (id) option.


Set relationship cardinality

Now you can associate an airport with an airline (or an airline with an airport) using Add child feature or Link existing child feature in the subforms. A record will automatically be inserted in the airports_airlines table.


N-M relationship between airports and airlines


Using Many to one relation cardinality

Sometimes hiding the pivot table in an N-M relationship is not desirable. Mainly because there are attributes in the relationship that can only have values when a relationship is established. If your tables are layers (have a geometry field) it could be interesting to activate the On map identification option (Layer Properties ‣ Attributes Form ‣ Available widgets ‣ Fields) for the foreign key fields in the pivot table.


Pivot table primary key

Avoid using multiple fields in the primary key in a pivot table. QGIS assumes a single primary key so a constraint like constraint airports_airlines_pkey primary key (airport_fk, airline_fk) will not work.