20. Working with Point Clouds

20.1. Introduction to Point Clouds

What is A Point Cloud?

A point cloud is a three-dimensional image of a space made up of many individual of data points (up to billions, even trillions). Each of the points has an x, y and z coordinate. Depending on the capture method, point clouds usually also have additional attributes that came from the capture, such as color values or intensity. These attributes can be used, for instance, to display point clouds in different colors. In QGIS, a point cloud can be used to generate a three-dimensional image of the landscape (or of another space).

Supported Formats

QGIS supports the data formats Entwine Point Tile (EPT) and LAS/LAZ. To work with point clouds, QGIS always saves the data in EPT. EPT is a storage format that consists of several files stored in a common folder. To allow quick access to the data, EPT uses indexing. For more information on the EPT format, see entwine homepage

If the data is in LAS or LAZ format, QGIS will convert it to EPT when it is loaded for the first time. Depending on the size of the file, this may take some time. In this process, a subfolder is created in the folder in which the LAS/LAZ file is located according to the scheme ept_ + name_LAS/LAZ_file. If such a subfolder already exists, QGIS loads the EPT immediately (which leads to a reduced loading time).

Worth Knowing

In QGIS it is not (yet) possible to edit point clouds. If you want to manipulate your point cloud, you can use CloudCompare, an open source point cloud processing tool. Also the Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL - similar to GDAL) offers you options to edit point clouds (PDAL is command line only).

Due to the large number of data points, it is not possible to display an attribute table of point clouds in QGIS. However, the identify Identify tool supports point clouds, so you can display all attributes, even of a single data point.

20.2. Point Clouds Properties

The Layer Properties dialog for a point cloud layer offers general settings for the layer and its rendering. It also provides information about the layer.

レイヤプロパティ ダイアログにアクセスするには:

  • In the Layers panel, double-click the layer or right-click and select Properties... from the context menu;

  • レイヤを選択した状態で、 レイヤ ► レイヤのプロパティ... メニューを選ぶ

The point cloud Layer Properties dialog provides the following sections:

metadata Information

system Source

symbology Symbology[1]

3d 3D View[1]

rendering Rendering

elevationscale Elevation[1]

editMetadata Metadata

basicStatistics Statistics

[1] レイヤスタイルパネル からも利用可能です


Most of the properties of a point cloud layer can be saved to or loaded from a .qml file using the Style menu at the bottom of the properties dialog. More details at レイヤのプロパティの保存および共有

20.2.1. 情報プロパティ

metadata 情報 タブは読み取り専用で、現在のレイヤの要約された情報やメタデータをさっと掴むことができる興味深い場所です。提供される情報には、以下のものがあります:

  • General such as name in the project, source path, last save time and size, the used provider

  • Based on the provider of the layer: extent and number of points

  • The Coordinate Reference System: name, units, method, accuracy, reference (i.e. whether it's static or dynamic)

  • Metadata delivered by the provider: creation date, version, data format, scale X/Y/Z, ...

  • Picked from the editMetadata Metadata tab (where they can be edited): access, extents, links, contacts, history...


図 20.1 Point cloud information tab

20.2.2. ソースプロパティ

In the system Source tab you can see and edit basic information about the point cloud layer:

  • Settings: Set a Layer name different from the layer filename that will be used to identify the layer in the project (in the Layers Panel, with expressions, in print layout legend,...)

  • Assigned Coordinate Reference System (CRS): Here you can change the layer's assigned Coordinate Reference System, selecting a recently used one in the drop-down list or clicking on setProjection set Projection Select CRS button (see 座標参照系セレクタ). Use this process only if the CRS applied to the layer is a wrong one or if none was applied.


図 20.2 Point cloud source tab

20.2.3. シンボロジプロパティ

In the symbology Symbology tab the settings for the rendering of the point cloud are made. In the upper part, the settings of the different feature renderers can be found. In the lower part, there are sections with which general settings for the entire layer can be made and which apply over feature renderers. Feature Rendering types

There are different options for rendering point clouds that can be selected using the drop-down menu at the top of the Symbology tab (see 図 20.3):

  • pointCloudExtent Extent Only: Only a bounding box of the extent of the data is displayed; convenient for overviewing the data extent. As usual, the Symbol widget helps you configure any properties (color, stroke, opacity, sub-layers, ...) you'd like for the box.

  • singlebandPseudocolor Attribute by Ramp: The data is drawn over a color gradient. See Attribute by Ramp Renderer

  • multibandColor RGB: Draw the data using red, green and blue color values. See RGB Renderer

  • paletted Classification: The data is drawn using different colors for different classes. See Classification Renderer

When a point cloud is loaded, QGIS follows a logic to select the best renderer:

  • if the dataset contains color information (red, green, blue attributes), the RGB renderer will be used

  • else if the dataset contains a Classification attribute, the classified renderer will be used

  • else it will fall back to rendering based on Z attribute

If you do not know the attributes of the point cloud, the basicStatistics Statistics tab provides a good overview of which attributes are contained in the point cloud and in which ranges the values are located.


図 20.3 Point cloud symbology tab

Attribute by Ramp Renderer

With singlebandPseudocolor Attribute by Ramp, the data can be displayed by numerical values over a color gradient. Such numerical values can be, for example, an existing intensity attribute or the Z-value. Depending on a minimum and a maximum value, the other values are spread to the color gradient via interpolation. The distinct values and their assignment to a certain color are called "color map" and are shown in the table. There are various setting options, which are described below the figure.


図 20.4 Point cloud symbology tab: Attribute by Ramp

  • Min and Max define the range that is applied to the color ramp: the Min value represents the left, the Max value the right end of the color ramp, the values in between are interpolated. By default QGIS detects the minimum and the maximum from the selected attribute but they can be modified. Once you have changed the values, you can restore the defaults by clicking on the Load button.

  • The Interpolation entry defines how values are assigned their color:

    • 離散的<= シンボルが カラムのヘッダに表示されます):ラスタの色には、その値以上で最も近いカラーマップのエントリを使用します。

    • Linear The color is linearly interpolated from the color map entries above and below the pixel value, meaning that to each dataset value corresponds a unique color

    • 正確な= シンボルが カラムのヘッダに表示されます):カラーマップエントリの値に等しい値を持つピクセルだけに色が適用されます。その他の値のピクセルはレンダリングされません。

  • The Color ramp widget helps you select the color ramp to assign to the dataset. As usual with this widget, you can create a new one and edit or save the currently selected one.

  • ラベルの単位の接尾辞 は、凡例内で値の後ろにラベルを追加します。また、 ラベルの精度 は表示する小数点以下の桁数を制御します。

分類の モード は、クラス間でどのように値が分布するかを定義できます:

  • Continuous: Classes number and color are fetched from the color ramp stops; limits values are set following stops distribution in the color ramp (you can find more information on stops in カラーランプの設定).

  • Equal interval: The number of classes is set by the Classes field at the end of the line; limits values are defined so that the classes all have the same magnitude.

The classes are determined automatically and shown in the color map table. But you can also edit these classes manually:

  • Double clicking in a Value in the table lets you modify the class value

  • Double clicking in the Color column opens the カラーセレクタ widget, where you can select a color to apply for that value

  • Double clicking in the Label column to modify the label of the class

  • Right-clicking over selected rows in the color table shows a contextual menu to Change Color... and Change Opacity... for the selection

Below the table there are the options to restore the default classes with Classify or to manually symbologyAdd Add values or symbologyRemove Delete selected values from the table.

Since a customized color map can be very complex, there is also the option to fileOpen Load an existing color map or to fileSaveAs Save it for use in other layers (as a txt file).

If you have selected Linear for Interpolation, you can also configure:

  • checkbox Clip out of range values By default, the linear method assigns the first class (respectively the last class) color to values in the dataset that are lower than the set Min (respectively greater than the set Max) value. Check this setting if you do not want to render those values.

  • Legend settings, for display in the Layers panel and in the layout legend. Customization works the same way as with a raster layer (find more details at ラスタの凡例のカスタマイズ).

RGB Renderer

With the multibandColor RGB renderer, three selected attributes from the point cloud will be used as the red, green and blue component. If the attributes are named accordingly, QGIS selects them automatically and fetches Min and Max values for each band and scales the coloring accordingly. However, it is also possible to modify the values manually.

A Contrast enhancement method can be applied to the values: No Enhancement, Stretch to MinMax, Stretch and Clip to MinMax and Clip to MinMax


The Contrast enhancement tool is still under development. If you have problems with it, you should use the default setting Stretch to MinMax.


図 20.5 The point cloud RGB renderer

Classification Renderer

In the paletted Classification rendering, the point cloud is shown differentiated by color on the basis of an attribute. Any type of attribute can be used (numeric, string, ...). Point cloud data often includes a field called Classification. This usually contains data determined automatically by post-processing, e.g. about vegetation. With Attribute you can select the field from the attribute table that will be used for the classification. By default, QGIS uses the definitions of the LAS specification (see table 'ASPRS Standard Point Classes' in the PDF on ASPRS home page). However, the data may deviate from this schema; in case of doubt, you have to ask the person or institution from which you received the data for the definitions.


図 20.6 The point cloud classification renderer

In the table all used values are displayed with the corresponding color and legend. At the beginning of each row there is a checkbox check box; if it is unchecked, this value is no longer shown on the map. With double click in the table, the Color, the Value and the Legend can be modified (for the color, the カラーセレクタ widget opens).

Below the table there are buttons with which you can change the default classes generated by QGIS:

  • With the Classify button the data can be classified automatically: all values that occur in the attributes and are not yet present in the table are added

  • With symbologyAdd Add and symbologyRemove Delete, values can be added or removed manually

  • Delete All removes all values from the table Point Symbol

Under Point Symbol, the size and the unit (e.g. millimeters, pixels, inches) with which each data point is displayed can be set. Either Circle or Square can be selected as the style for the points. Layer Rendering

In the Layer Rendering section you have the following options to modify the rendering of the layer:

  • Maximum error: Point clouds usually contains more points than are needed for the display. By this option you set how dense or sparse the display of the point cloud will be (this can also be understood as 'maximum allowed gap between points'). If you set a large number (e.g. 5 mm), there will be visible gaps between points. Low value (e.g. 0.1 mm) could force rendering of unnecessary amount of points, making rendering slower (different units can be selected).

  • Opacity: You can make the underlying layer in the map canvas visible with this tool. Use the slider to adapt the visibility of your layer to your needs. You can also make a precise definition of the percentage of visibility in the menu beside the slider.

  • Blending mode: You can achieve special rendering effects with this tool. The pixels of your overlaying and underlying layers are mixed through the settings described in 混合モード.

20.2.4. 3Dビュープロパティ

In the 3d 3D View tab you can make the settings for the rendering of the point cloud in 3D maps. Following options can be selected from the drop down menu at the top of the tab:


図 20.7 The point cloud 3D view tab with the classification renderer

In the lower part of the 3d 3D View tab you can find the Point Symbol section. Here you can make general settings for the entire layer which are the same for all renderers. There are the following options:

  • Point size: The size (in pixels) with which each data point is displayed can be set

  • Maximum screen space error: By this option you set how dense or sparse the display of the point cloud will be (in pixels). If you set a large number (e.g. 10), there will be visible gaps between points; low value (e.g. 0) could force rendering of unnecessary amount of points, making rendering slower (you can find more details at Symbology Maximum error).

  • Point budget: To avoid long rendering, you can set the maximum number of points that will be rendered

  • Point cloud size: For your information only, the total number of points is shown here

  • checkbox Show bounding boxes: Especially useful for debugging, shows bounding boxes of nodes in hierarchy

20.2.5. レンダリングプロパティ

Under the Scale dependent visibility group box, you can set the Maximum (inclusive) and Minimum (exclusive) scale, defining a range of scale in which features will be visible. Out of this range, they are hidden. The mapIdentification Set to current canvas scale button helps you use the current map canvas scale as boundary of the range visibility. See Visibility Scale Selector for more information.


レイヤの縮尺に応じた表示は、レイヤ パネルからも有効にすることもできます: レイヤを右クリックし、コンテキストメニューから レイヤの縮尺表示を設定 を選択します。


図 20.8 The point cloud rendering tab

20.2.6. 標高プロパティ

In the elevationscale Elevation tab, you can set corrections for the Z-values of the data. This may be necessary to adjust the elevation of the data in 3D maps. There are two setting options:

  • You can set a Scale: If 10 is entered here, a point that has a value Z=``5`` is displayed at a height of 50.

  • An offset to the z-level can be entered. This is useful to match different data sources in its height to each other. By default, the lowest z-value contained in the data is used as this value. This value can also be restored with the refresh Refresh button at the end of the line.


図 20.9 The point cloud elevation tab

20.2.7. メタデータプロパティ

editMetadata メタデータ タブには、レイヤに関するメタデータレポートの作成・編集オプションがあります。詳細は メタデータ を参照してください。

20.2.8. Statistics Properties

In the basicStatistics Statistics tab you can get an overview of the attributes of your point cloud and their distribution.

At the top you will find the section Attribute Statistics. Here all attributes contained in the point cloud are listed, as well as some of their statistical values: Minimum, Maximum, Mean, Standard Deviation

If there is an attribute Classification, then there is another table in the lower section. Here all values contained in the attribute are listed, as well as their absolute Count and relative % abundance.


図 20.10 The point cloud statistics tab