2. Iniciando

2.1. Installation on Debian-based systems

We will give a short and simple installation how-to for a minimal working configuration on Debian based systems (including Ubuntu and derivatives). However, many other distributions and OSs provide packages for QGIS Server.

Nota

No Ubuntu, você pode usar seu usuário comum, acrescentando sudo aos comandos que requerem permissões de administrador. No Debian você pode trabalhar como administrador (root), sem usar sudo.

Requirements and steps to add official QGIS repositories to install QGIS Server on a Debian based system are provided in QGIS installers page. You may want to install at least the latest Long Term Release.

Uma vez configurado o repositório da versão desejada e instalado o QGIS Server, você pode testar a instalação com:

/usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi

Se você obtiver a seguinte saída, o servidor está corretamente instalado.

Nota

Dependendo da versão do QGIS, você poderá ver uma saída ligeiramente diferente informada quando executar qgis_mapserv.fcgi`.

QFSFileEngine::open: No file name specified
Warning 1: Unable to find driver ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver JP2ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver JP2ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Content-Length: 206
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8

<ServiceExceptionReport version="1.3.0" xmlns="https://www.opengis.net/ogc">
 <ServiceException code="Service configuration error">Service unknown or unsupported</ServiceException>
</ServiceExceptionReport>

Nota

Como visto abaixo, o QGIS informa um código de Status 400, que identifica corretamente que a solicitação falhou porque não há sessão http ativa. Isto não é um bug e indica que o servidor está funcionando corretamente.

Application path not initialized
Application path not initialized
Warning 1: Unable to find driver ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
Warning 1: Unable to find driver JP2ECW to unload from GDAL_SKIP environment variable.
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libdummy.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/liblandingpage.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libwcs.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libwfs.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libwfs3.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libwms.so"
"Loading native module /usr/lib/qgis/server/libwmts.so"
QFSFileEngine::open: No file name specified
Content-Length: 102
Content-Type: application/json
Server:  QGIS FCGI server - QGIS version 3.22.6-Białowieża
Status:  400
[{"code":"Bad request error","description":"Requested URI does not match any registered API handler"}]

Let’s add a sample project. You can use your own, or one from Training demo data:

mkdir /home/qgis/projects/
cd /home/qgis/projects/
wget https://github.com/qgis/QGIS-Training-Data/archive/release_3.22.zip
unzip release_3.22.zip
mv QGIS-Training-Data-release_3.22/exercise_data/qgis-server-tutorial-data/world.qgs .
mv QGIS-Training-Data-release_3.22/exercise_data/qgis-server-tutorial-data/naturalearth.sqlite .

Certamente, você pode usar seu software GIS favorito para abrir este arquivo e dar uma olhada na configuração e nas camadas disponíveis.

Para implantar corretamente o servidor QGIS, você precisa de um servidor HTTP. As escolhas recomendadas são Apache ou NGINX.

2.1.1. Servidor HTTP Apache

Nota

In the following, please replace qgis.demo with the name or IP address of your server.

  1. Instalar Apache e mod_fcgid:

    apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-fcgid
    
  2. Você pode executar o QGIS Server em seu site padrão, mas vamos configurar um virtual host especificamente para isto, como segue.

    1. No diretório :file:`/etc/apache2/sites-available’, crie um arquivo chamado :arquivo:`qgis.demo.conf’, com este conteúdo:

      <VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin [email protected]
        ServerName qgis.demo
      
        DocumentRoot /var/www/html
      
        # Apache logs (different than QGIS Server log)
        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/qgis.demo.error.log
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/qgis.demo.access.log combined
      
        # Longer timeout for WPS... default = 40
        FcgidIOTimeout 120
      
        FcgidInitialEnv LC_ALL "en_US.UTF-8"
        FcgidInitialEnv PYTHONIOENCODING UTF-8
        FcgidInitialEnv LANG "en_US.UTF-8"
      
        # QGIS log
        FcgidInitialEnv QGIS_SERVER_LOG_STDERR 1
        FcgidInitialEnv QGIS_SERVER_LOG_LEVEL 0
      
        # default QGIS project
        SetEnv QGIS_PROJECT_FILE /home/qgis/projects/world.qgs
      
        # QGIS_AUTH_DB_DIR_PATH must lead to a directory writeable by the Server's FCGI process user
        FcgidInitialEnv QGIS_AUTH_DB_DIR_PATH "/home/qgis/qgisserverdb/"
        FcgidInitialEnv QGIS_AUTH_PASSWORD_FILE "/home/qgis/qgisserverdb/qgis-auth.db"
      
        # Set pg access via pg_service file
        SetEnv PGSERVICEFILE /home/qgis/.pg_service.conf
        FcgidInitialEnv PGPASSFILE "/home/qgis/.pgpass"
      
        # if qgis-server is installed from packages in debian based distros this is usually /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        # run "locate qgis_mapserv.fcgi" if you don't know where qgis_mapserv.fcgi is
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin/">
          AllowOverride None
          Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews -SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
          Require all granted
        </Directory>
      
        <IfModule mod_fcgid.c>
        FcgidMaxRequestLen 26214400
        FcgidConnectTimeout 60
        </IfModule>
      
      </VirtualHost>
      

      Nota

      Algumas das opções de configuração acima são explicadas nas seções Servidor variáveis de ambiente e pg_service file

    2. Vamos agora criar os diretórios que irão armazenar os logs e o banco de dados de autenticação do Servidor QGIS:

      mkdir -p /var/log/qgis/
      chown www-data:www-data /var/log/qgis
      mkdir -p /home/qgis/qgisserverdb
      chown www-data:www-data /home/qgis/qgisserverdb
      

      Nota

      www-data is the Apache user on Debian based systems and we need Apache to have access to those locations or files. The chown www-data... commands change the owner of the respective directories and files to www-data.

  3. Agora podemos habilitar o host virtual e o fcgid mod, se isso ainda não tiver sido feito:

    a2enmod fcgid
    a2ensite qgis.demo
    
  4. Now restart Apache for the new configuration to be taken into account:

    systemctl restart apache2
    
  5. Agora que o Apache sabe que deve responder aos pedidos para http://qgis.demo também precisamos configurar o sistema do cliente para que ele saiba quem é qgis.demo. Fazemos isso adicionando 127.0.0.1 qgis.demo no arquivo hosts.

    # Replace 127.0.0.1 with the IP of your server.
    sh -c "echo '127.0.0.1 qgis.demo' >> /etc/hosts"``.
    

Importante

Remember that both the qgis.demo.conf and /etc/hosts files should be configured for your setup to work. You can also test the access to your QGIS Server from other clients on the network (e.g. Windows or macos machines) by going to their /etc/hosts file and point the qgis.demo name to whatever IP the server machine has on the network (not 127.0.0.1 as it is the local IP, only accessible from the local machine). On *nix machines the hosts file is located in /etc, while on Windows it’s under the C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc directory. Under Windows you need to start your text editor with administrator privileges before opening the hosts file.

QGIS Server is now available at http://qgis.demo. To check, type in a browser, as in the simple case:

http://qgis.demo/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi?SERVICE=WMS&VERSION=1.3.0&REQUEST=GetCapabilities

2.1.2. Servidor HTTP NGINX

Nota

In the following, please replace qgis.demo with the name or IP address of your server.

Você também pode utilizar o Servidor QGIS com NGINX. Ao contrário do Apache, NGINX não gera automaticamente processos FastCGI. Os processos FastCGI devem ser iniciados por outra coisa.

Instalar NGINX:

apt install nginx
  • As a first option, you can use spawn-fcgi or fcgiwrap to start and manage the QGIS Server processes. Official Debian packages exist for both. When you have no X server running and you need, for example, printing, you can use xvfb.

  • Another option is to rely on Systemd, the init system for GNU/Linux that most Linux distributions use today. One of the advantages of this method is that it requires no other components or processes. It’s meant to be simple, yet robust and efficient for production deployments.

Configuração NGINX

The include fastcgi_params; used in the previous configuration is important, as it adds the parameters from /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params:

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_SCHEME     $scheme;
fastcgi_param  HTTPS              $https if_not_empty;

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx/$nginx_version;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

Moreover, you can use some Variáveis ambientais to configure QGIS Server. In the NGINX configuration file, /etc/nginx/nginx.conf, you have to use fastcgi_param instruction to define these variables as shown below:

location /qgisserver {
     gzip           off;
     include        fastcgi_params;
     fastcgi_param  QGIS_SERVER_LOG_STDERR  1;
     fastcgi_param  QGIS_SERVER_LOG_LEVEL   0;
     fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/qgisserver.socket;
 }

FastCGI wrappers

Aviso

fcgiwrap is easier to set up than spawn-fcgi, because it’s already wrapped in a Systemd service. But it also leads to a solution that is much slower than using spawn-fcgi. With fcgiwrap, a new QGIS Server process is created on each request, meaning that the QGIS Server initialization process, which includes reading and parsing the QGIS project file, is done on each request. With spawn-fcgi, the QGIS Server process remains alive between requests, resulting in much better performance. For that reason, spawn-fcgi is recommended for production use.

gerar-fcgi

Se você quiser utilizar spawn-fcgi:

  1. O primeiro passo é instalar o pacote:

    apt install spawn-fcgi
    
  2. Em seguida, introduzir o seguinte bloco na configuração do seu servidor NGINX:

    location /qgisserver {
        gzip           off;
        include        fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/qgisserver.socket;
    }
    
  3. E reiniciar o NGINX para levar em conta a nova configuração:

    systemctl restart nginx
    
  4. Finally, considering that there is no default service file for spawn-fcgi, you have to manually start QGIS Server in your terminal:

    spawn-fcgi -s /var/run/qgisserver.socket \
                    -U www-data -G www-data -n \
                    /usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi
    

O Servidor QGIS está agora disponível em http://qgis.demo/qgisserver.

Nota

When using spawn-fcgi, you may directly define environment variables before running the server. For example: export QGIS_SERVER_LOG_STDERR=1

É claro, você pode adicionar um roteiro de inicialização para iniciar o QGIS Server no momento da inicialização ou sempre que quiser. Por exemplo, com systemd:

  1. Edite o arquivo:file:/etc/systemd/system/qgis-server.service com este conteúdo:

    [Unit]
    Description=QGIS server
    After=network.target
    
    [Service]
    ;; set env var as needed
    ;Environment="LANG=en_EN.UTF-8"
    ;Environment="QGIS_SERVER_PARALLEL_RENDERING=1"
    ;Environment="QGIS_SERVER_MAX_THREADS=12"
    ;Environment="QGIS_SERVER_LOG_LEVEL=0"
    ;Environment="QGIS_SERVER_LOG_STDERR=1"
    ;; or use a file:
    ;EnvironmentFile=/etc/qgis-server/env
    
    ExecStart=spawn-fcgi -s /var/run/qgisserver.socket -U www-data -G www-data -n /usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target
    
  2. Em seguida, habilitar e iniciar o serviço:

    systemctl enable --now qgis-server
    

Aviso

With the above commands spawn-fcgi spawns only one QGIS Server process.

fcgiwrap

Utilizar fcgiwrap é muito mais fácil de configurar do que spawn-fcgi mas é muito mais lento.

  1. Primeiro você precisa instalar o pacote correspondente:

    apt install fcgiwrap
    
  2. Em seguida, introduzir o seguinte bloco na configuração do seu servidor NGINX:

    1 location /qgisserver {
    2     gzip           off;
    3     include        fastcgi_params;
    4     fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/fcgiwrap.socket;
    5     fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi;
    6 }
    
  3. Finally, restart NGINX and fcgiwrap to take into account the new configuration:

    systemctl restart nginx
    systemctl restart fcgiwrap
    

O Servidor QGIS está agora disponível em http://qgis.demo/qgisserver.

Sistemad

QGIS Server needs a running X Server to be fully usable, in particular for printing. In the case you already have a running X Server, you can use systemd services.

Este método, para implantar o Servidor QGIS, conta com duas unidades Systemd para configurar: uma Unidade de bolso e uma Unidade de serviço.

  1. The QGIS Server Socket unit defines and creates a file system socket, used by NGINX to start and communicate with QGIS Server. The Socket unit has to be configured with Accept=false, meaning that the calls to the accept() system call are delegated to the process created by the Service unit. It is located in /etc/systemd/system/qgis-server@.socket, which is actually a template:

    [Unit]
    Description=QGIS Server Listen Socket (instance %i)
    
    [Socket]
    Accept=false
    ListenStream=/var/run/qgis-server-%i.sock
    SocketUser=www-data
    SocketGroup=www-data
    SocketMode=0600
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=sockets.target
    
  2. Agora ative e inicie as tomadas:

    for i in 1 2 3 4; do systemctl enable --now [email protected]$i.socket; done
    
  3. The QGIS Server Service unit defines and starts the QGIS Server process. The important part is that the Service process’ standard input is connected to the socket defined by the Socket unit. This has to be configured using StandardInput=socket in the Service unit configuration located in /etc/systemd/system/qgis-server@.service:

    [Unit]
    Description=QGIS Server Service (instance %i)
    
    [Service]
    User=www-data
    Group=www-data
    StandardOutput=null
    StandardError=journal
    StandardInput=socket
    ExecStart=/usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi
    EnvironmentFile=/etc/qgis-server/env
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target
    

    Nota

    The QGIS Server environment variables are defined in a separate file, /etc/qgis-server/env. It could look like this:

    QGIS_PROJECT_FILE=/etc/qgis/myproject.qgs
    QGIS_SERVER_LOG_STDERR=1
    QGIS_SERVER_LOG_LEVEL=3
    
  4. Now start socket service:

    for i in 1 2 3 4; do systemctl enable --now [email protected]$i.service; done
    
  5. Finalmente, para o servidor HTTP NGINX, vamos apresentar a configuração desta instalação:

    upstream qgis-server_backend {
       server unix:/var/run/qgis-server-1.sock;
       server unix:/var/run/qgis-server-2.sock;
       server unix:/var/run/qgis-server-3.sock;
       server unix:/var/run/qgis-server-4.sock;
    }
    
    server {
       
    
       location /qgis-server {
           gzip off;
           include fastcgi_params;
           fastcgi_pass qgis-server_backend;
       }
    }
    
  6. Now restart NGINX for the new configuration to be taken into account:

    systemctl restart nginx
    

Thanks to Oslandia for sharing their tutorial.

2.1.3. Xvfb

QGIS Server needs a running X Server to be fully usable, in particular for printing. On servers it is usually recommended not to install it, so you may use xvfb to have a virtual X environment.

If you’re running the Server in graphic/X11 environment then there is no need to install xvfb. More info at https://www.itopen.it/qgis-server-setup-notes/.

  1. Para instalar o pacote:

    apt install xvfb
    
  2. Create the service file, /etc/systemd/system/xvfb.service, with this content:

    [Unit]
    Description=X Virtual Frame Buffer Service
    After=network.target
    
    [Service]
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/Xvfb :99 -screen 0 1024x768x24 -ac +extension GLX +render -noreset
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target
    
  3. Ative, inicie e verifique o status do xvfb.service:

    systemctl enable --now xvfb.service
    systemctl status xvfb.service
    
  4. Then, according to your HTTP server, you should configure the DISPLAY parameter or directly use xvfb-run.

    • Usando Apache:

      1. Adicione à sua configuração Fcgid (ver Servidor HTTP Apache):

        FcgidInitialEnv DISPLAY       ":99"
        
      2. Reinicie o Apache para que a nova configuração seja considerada:

        systemctl restart apache2
        
    • Usando NGINX

      • With spawn-fcgi using xvfb-run:

        xvfb-run /usr/bin/spawn-fcgi -f /usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi \
                                     -s /tmp/qgisserver.socket \
                                     -G www-data -U www-data -n
        
      • With the DISPLAY environment variable in the HTTP server configuration.

        fastcgi_param  DISPLAY       ":99";
        

2.2. Instalação no Windows

O QGIS Server também pode ser instalado em sistemas Windows usando a versão 64 bit do instalador de rede OSGeo4W (https://qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html).

Um procedimento simples é o seguinte:

  1. Baixe e execute o instalador OSGeo4W

  2. Siga a “Instalação Avançada” e instale os pacotes QGIS Desktop, QGIS Server apache e mod_fcgid.

    ../../_images/qgis_server_windows2.png
  3. O Apache não é instalado diretamente como um serviço no Windows. Você precisa fazê-lo:

    1. Clique com o botão direito do mouse no arquivo OSGeo4W.bat na raiz da pasta C:\OSGeo4W64\ (se os caminhos de instalação padrão tiverem sido utilizados) e selecione Executar como administrador

    2. No console, execute apache-install.bat, que terá saída

      > apache-install.bat
      Installing the 'Apache OSGeo4W Web Server' service
      The 'Apache OSGeo4W Web Server' service is successfully installed.
      Testing httpd.conf....
      Errors reported here must be corrected before the service can be started.
      ...
      

      O serviço está iniciado, como você pode notar no relatório. Mas o servidor pode não funcionar devido à falta de configuração personalizada.

  4. Edite o :arquivo:`C:\\OSGeo4w64\\apps\\apache\\conf\\httpd.conf` arquivo com as seguintes mudanças (várias outras combinações são possíveis):

    Finalidade

    Configuração existente

    Substituição

    (Opcional) Personalize o endereço para ouvir usando um IP e/ou porta, Você pode e adicionar quantas entradas desejar.

    Listen ${SRVPORT}
    
    Listen localhost:8080
    

    Indique onde encontrar os arquivos de script

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "${SRVROOT}/cgi-bin/"
    
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "C:/OSGeo4W64/apps/qgis/bin/"
    

    Fornecer permissões na pasta de scripts

    <Directory "${SRVROOT}/cgi-bin">
        AllowOverride None
        Options None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
    
    <Directory "C:/OSGeo4W64/apps/qgis/bin">
        SetHandler cgi-script
        AllowOverride None
        Options ExecCGI
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
    

    Habilitar extensões de arquivo para uso em arquivos de script. Descomentar e completar

    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
    
    AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .exe
    

    Adicionar mais variáveis de configuração personalizadas OSGeo4W

    # parse OSGeo4W apache conf files
    IncludeOptional "C:/OSGeo4W64/httpd.d/httpd_*.conf"
    
    # parse OSGeo4W apache conf files
    IncludeOptional "C:/OSGeo4W64/httpd.d/httpd_*.conf"
    SetEnv GDAL_DATA "C:/OSGeo4W64/share/gdal"
    SetEnv QGIS_AUTH_DB_DIR_PATH "C:/OSGeo4W64/apps/qgis/resources"
    
  5. Reiniciar o servidor web Apache

    > apache-restart.bat
    
  6. Abra a janela do navegador para testar uma solicitação de GetCapabilities no Servidor QGIS. Substitua localhost:8080 pelo IP e porta que você definir para ouvir.

    http://localhost:8080/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi.exe?SERVICE=WMS&VERSION=1.3.0&REQUEST=GetCapabilities
    

    Um :arquivo:`XML` arquivo com as capacidades deve ser devolvido. Seu servidor está pronto para uso.

2.3. Serve a project

Agora que o Servidor QGIS está instalado e funcionando, só temos que usá-lo.

Obviously, we need a QGIS project to work on. Of course, you can fully customize your project by defining contact information, precise some restrictions on CRS or even exclude some layers. Everything you need to know about that is described later in Configurar seu projeto.

But for now, we are going to use a simple project already configured and previously downloaded in /home/qgis/projects/world.qgs, as described above.

Ao abrir o projeto e dar uma olhada rápida nas camadas, sabemos que 4 camadas estão disponíveis no momento:

  • aeroportos

  • lugares

  • países

  • countries_shapeburst

Você não precisa entender a solicitação completa por enquanto, mas pode recuperar um mapa com algumas das camadas anteriores graças ao Servidor QGIS fazendo algo assim em seu navegador da web para recuperar a camada países:

http://qgis.demo/qgisserver?
  MAP=/home/qgis/projects/world.qgs&
  LAYERS=countries&
  SERVICE=WMS&
  VERSION=1.3.0&
  REQUEST=GetMap&
  CRS=EPSG:4326&
  WIDTH=400&
  HEIGHT=200&
  BBOX=-90,-180,90,180

Se você obtiver a próxima imagem, então o Servidor QGIS está rodando corretamente:

../../_images/server_basic_getmap.png

Fig. 2.1 Server response to a basic GetMap request

Note that you may define QGIS_PROJECT_FILE environment variable to use a project by default instead of giving a MAP parameter (see Variáveis ambientais).

Por exemplo com spawn-fcgi:

export QGIS_PROJECT_FILE=/home/qgis/projects/world.qgs
spawn-fcgi -f /usr/lib/bin/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi \
           -s /var/run/qgisserver.socket \
           -U www-data -G www-data -n

2.4. Configurar seu projeto

To provide a new QGIS Server WMS, WFS or WCS, you have to create a QGIS project file with some data or use one of your current project. Define the colors and styles of the layers in QGIS and the project CRS, if not already defined.

../../_images/ows_server_definition.png

Fig. 2.2 Definitions for a QGIS Server WMS/WFS/WCS project

Then, go to the QGIS Server menu of the Project ► Properties… dialog and provide some information about the OWS in the fields under Service Capabilities. This will appear in the GetCapabilities response of the WMS, WFS or WCS. If you don’t check caixa de seleção Service capabilities, QGIS Server will use the information given in the wms_metadata.xml file located in the cgi-bin folder.

2.4.1. Recursos WMS

In the WMS capabilities section, you can define the extent advertised in the WMS GetCapabilities response by entering the minimum and maximum X and Y values in the fields under Advertised extent. Clicking Use Current Canvas Extent sets these values to the extent currently displayed in the QGIS map canvas. By checking caixa de seleção CRS restrictions, you can restrict in which coordinate reference systems (CRS) QGIS Server will offer to render maps. It is recommended that you restrict the offered CRS as this reduces the size of the WMS GetCapabilities response. Use the adicionarSimbologia button below to select those CRSs from the Coordinate Reference System Selector, or click Used to add the CRSs used in the QGIS project to the list.

If you have print layouts defined in your project, they will be listed in the GetProjectSettings response, and they can be used by the GetPrint request to create prints, using one of the print layouts as a template. This is a QGIS-specific extension to the WMS 1.3.0 specification. If you want to exclude any print layout from being published by the WMS, check caixa de seleção Exclude layouts and click the adicionarSimbologia button below. Then, select a print layout from the Select print layout dialog in order to add it to the excluded layouts list.

If you want to exclude any layer or layer group from being published by the WMS, check caixa de seleção Exclude Layers and click the adicionarSimbologia button below. This opens the Select restricted layers and groups dialog, which allows you to choose the layers and groups that you don’t want to be published. Use the Shift or Ctrl key if you want to select multiple entries. It is recommended that you exclude from publishing the layers that you don’t need as this reduces the size of the WMS GetCapabilities response which leads to faster loading times on the client side.

If you check caixa de seleção Use layer ids as name, layer ids will be used to reference layers in the GetCapabilities response or GetMap LAYERS parameter. If not, layer name or short name if defined (see Propriedades do Servidor QGIS) is used.

You can receive requested GetFeatureInfo as plain text, XML and GML. The default is XML.

If you wish, you can check caixa de seleção Add geometry to feature response. This will include the bounding box for each feature in the GetFeatureInfo response. See also the WITH_GEOMETRY parameter.

As many web clients can’t display circular arcs in geometries you have the option to segmentize the geometry before sending it to the client in a GetFeatureInfo response. This allows such clients to still display a feature’s geometry (e.g. for highlighting the feature). You need to check the caixa de seleção Segmentize feature info geometry to activate the option.

You can also use the GetFeatureInfo geometry precision option to set the precision of the GetFeatureInfo geometry. This enables you to save bandwidth when you don’t need the full precision.

Se você quiser que o QGIS Server anuncie URLs de solicitação específicas na resposta do WMS GetCapabilities, digite a URL correspondente no campo URL anunciada

Além disso, você pode restringir o tamanho máximo dos mapas devolvidos pelo pedido GetMap inserindo a largura e altura máximas nos respectivos campos sob :guilabel:`Solicitação máxima do GetMap’.

Você pode mudar o fator Qualidade para imagens JPEG. O fator de qualidade deve estar na faixa de 0 a 100. Especifique 0 para compressão máxima, 100 para nenhuma compressão.

You can change the limit for atlas features to be printed in one request by setting the Maximum features for Atlas print requests field.

When QGIS Server is used in tiled mode (see TILED parameter), you can set the Tile buffer in pixels. The recommended value is the size of the largest symbol or line width in your QGIS project.

If one of your layers uses the Map Tip display (i.e. to show text using expressions) this will be listed inside the GetFeatureInfo output. If the layer uses a Value Map for one of its attributes, this information will also be shown in the GetFeatureInfo output.

2.4.2. WFS capabilities

In the WFS capabilities area you can select the layers you want to publish as WFS, and specify if they will allow update, insert and delete operations. If you enter a URL in the Advertised URL field of the WFS capabilities section, QGIS Server will advertise this specific URL in the WFS GetCapabilities response.

2.4.3. WCS capabilities

In the WCS capabilities area, you can select the layers that you want to publish as WCS. If you enter a URL in the Advertised URL field of the WCS capabilities section, QGIS Server will advertise this specific URL in the WCS GetCapabilities response.

2.4.4. Sintonia fina do seu OWS

For vector layers, the Fields menu of the Layer ► Layer Properties dialog allows you to define for each attribute if it will be published or not. By default, all the attributes are published by your WMS and WFS. If you don’t want a specific attribute to be published, uncheck the corresponding checkbox in the WMS or WFS column.

You can overlay watermarks over the maps produced by your WMS by adding text annotations or SVG annotations to the project file. See the Ferramentas de anotação section for instructions on creating annotations. For annotations to be displayed as watermarks on the WMS output, the Fixed map position checkbox in the Annotation text dialog must be unchecked. This can be accessed by double clicking the annotation while one of the annotation tools is active. For SVG annotations, you will need either to set the project to save absolute paths (in the General menu of the Project ► Properties… dialog) or to manually modify the path to the SVG image so that it represents a valid relative path.

2.5. Integração com terceiros

O Servidor QGIS fornece serviços web padrão OGC como WMS, WFS, etc. assim ele pode ser utilizado por uma grande variedade de ferramentas para o usuário final.

2.5.1. Integração com o QGIS Desktop

QGIS Desktop is the map designer where QGIS Server is the map server. The maps or QGIS projects will be served by the QGIS Server to provide OGC standards. These QGIS projects can either be files or entries in a database (by using Project ► Save to ► PostgreSQL in QGIS Desktop).

Além disso, deve ser estabelecido um fluxo de trabalho dedicado de atualização para atualizar um projeto utilizado por um Servidor QGIS (ou seja, copiar arquivos de projeto para a localização do servidor e reiniciar o Servidor QGIS). Por enquanto, os processos automatizados (como serviço de recarga de mensagens do servidor em fila de espera) ainda não estão implementados.

2.5.2. Integração com MapProxy

MapProxy is a tile cache server and as it can read and serve any WMS/WMTS map server, it can be directly connected to QGIS server web services and improve end user experience.

2.5.3. Integração com QWC2

QWC2 <https://github.com/qgis/qwc2>`_ é uma aplicação web responsiva e dedicada ao Servidor QGIS. Ele ajuda você a construir um visualizador de mapas altamente personalizado com seleção de camadas, informações de características, etc… Também estão disponíveis muitos plugins como autenticação ou serviço de impressão, a lista completa está disponível neste `repositório <https://github.com/qwc-services>>`_.