# Manipularea geometriei¶

Points, linestrings and polygons that represent a spatial feature are commonly referred to as geometries. In QGIS they are represented with the QgsGeometry class.

Uneori, o geometrie poate fi de fapt o colecție de simple geometrii (simple-părți). O astfel de geometrie poartă denumirea de geometrie multi-parte. În cazul în care conține doar un singur tip de geometrie simplă, o denumim multi-punct, multi-linie sau multi-poligon. De exemplu, o țară formată din mai multe insule poate fi reprezentată ca un multi-poligon.

Coordonatele geometriilor pot fi în orice sistem de coordonate de referință (CRS). Când extragem entitățile dintr-un strat, geometriile asociate vor avea coordonatele în CRS-ul stratului.

Description and specifications of all possible geometries construction and relationships are available in the OGC Simple Feature Access Standards for advanced details.

## Construirea geometriei¶

There are several options for creating a geometry:

• din coordonate

```gPnt = QgsGeometry.fromPoint(QgsPoint(1,1))
gLine = QgsGeometry.fromPolyline([QgsPoint(1, 1), QgsPoint(2, 2)])
gPolygon = QgsGeometry.fromPolygon([[QgsPoint(1, 1), QgsPoint(2, 2),
QgsPoint(2, 1)]])
```

Coordinates are given using QgsPoint class.

Polyline (Linestring) is represented by a list of points. Polygon is represented by a list of linear rings (i.e. closed linestrings). First ring is outer ring (boundary), optional subsequent rings are holes in the polygon.

Geometriile multi-parte merg cu un nivel mai departe: multi-punctele sunt o listă de puncte, multi-liniile o listă de linii iar multi-poligoanele sunt o listă de poligoane.

• din well-known text (WKT)

```gem = QgsGeometry.fromWkt("POINT(3 4)")
```
• din well-known binary (WKB)

```>>> g = QgsGeometry()
>>> wkb = '010100000000000000000045400000000000001440'.decode('hex')
>>> g.fromWkb(wkb)
>>> g.exportToWkt()
'Point (42 5)'
```

## Accesarea geometriei¶

First, you should find out geometry type, wkbType() method is the one to use — it returns a value from QGis.WkbType enumeration

```>>> gPnt.wkbType() == QGis.WKBPoint
True
>>> gLine.wkbType() == QGis.WKBLineString
True
>>> gPolygon.wkbType() == QGis.WKBPolygon
True
>>> gPolygon.wkbType() == QGis.WKBMultiPolygon
False
```

As an alternative, one can use type() method which returns a value from QGis.GeometryType enumeration. There is also a helper function isMultipart() to find out whether a geometry is multipart or not.

To extract information from geometry there are accessor functions for every vector type. How to use accessors

```>>> gPnt.asPoint()
(1, 1)
>>> gLine.asPolyline()
[(1, 1), (2, 2)]
>>> gPolygon.asPolygon()
[[(1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1)]]
```

Note

The tuples (x,y) are not real tuples, they are QgsPoint objects, the values are accessible with x() and y() methods.

For multipart geometries there are similar accessor functions: asMultiPoint(), asMultiPolyline(), asMultiPolygon().

## Predicate și operațiuni geometrice¶

QGIS uses GEOS library for advanced geometry operations such as geometry predicates (contains(), intersects(), ...) and set operations (union(), difference(), ...). It can also compute geometric properties of geometries, such as area (in the case of polygons) or lengths (for polygons and lines)

Here you have a small example that combines iterating over the features in a given layer and performing some geometric computations based on their geometries.

```# we assume that 'layer' is a polygon layer
features = layer.getFeatures()
for f in features:
geom = f.geometry()
print "Area:", geom.area()
print "Perimeter:", geom.length()
```

Areas and perimeters don’t take CRS into account when computed using these methods from the QgsGeometry class. For a more powerful area and distance calculation, the QgsDistanceArea class can be used. If projections are turned off, calculations will be planar, otherwise they’ll be done on the ellipsoid.

```d = QgsDistanceArea()
d.setEllipsoid('WGS84')
d.setEllipsoidalMode(True)

print "distance in meters: ", d.measureLine(QgsPoint(10,10),QgsPoint(11,11))
```

Puteți căuta mai multe exemple de algoritmi care sunt incluși în QGIS și să folosiți aceste metode pentru a analiza și a transforma datele vectoriale. Mai jos sunt prezente câteva trimiteri spre codul unora dintre ele.

Additional information can be found in following sources: