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QGIS GUI

When QGIS starts, you are presented with the GUI as shown in the figure (the numbers 1 through 5 in yellow circles are discussed below).

Figure QGIS GUI 1:

../../../_images/startup.png

QGIS GUI with Alaska sample data nix

Nota

Suas decorações de janela (barra de título, etc) podem parecer diferentes dependendo do seu sistema operacional e gerenciador de janelas.

The QGIS GUI is divided into five areas:

  1. Barra de Menu

  2. Tool Bar
  3. Map Legend
  4. Visualização do mapa

  5. Barra de Status

These five components of the QGIS interface are described in more detail in the following sections. Two more sections present keyboard shortcuts and context help.

Barra de Ferramentas

A barra de ferramentas permite o acesso à maioria das mesmas funções dos menus, além de ferramentas adicionais para interagir com o mapa. Cada item da barra de ferramentas pop-up tem ajuda disponível. Mantenha o mouse sobre o item e uma breve descrição a respeito da ferramenta será exibida.

Every menu bar can be moved around according to your needs. Additionally, every menu bar can be switched off using your right mouse button context menu, holding the mouse over the toolbars (read also Panels and Toolbars).

Dica

Restaurar barra de ferramentas

If you have accidentally hidden all your toolbars, you can get them back by choosing menu option Settings ‣ Toolbars ‣. If a toolbar disappears under Windows, which seems to be a problem in QGIS from time to time, you have to remove key \HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\QGIS\qgis\UI\state in the registry. When you restart QGIS, the key is written again with the default state, and all toolbars are visible again.

Map Legend

The map legend area lists all the layers in the project. The checkbox in each legend entry can be used to show or hide the layer. The Legend toolbar in the map legend are list allow you to Add group, Manage Layer Visibility of all layers or manage preset layers combination, Filter Legend by Map Content, Expand All or Collapse All and Remove Layer or Group.

Figure Layer tools Bar:

../../../_images/layer_toobar.png

Layer Tool Bar in Map Legend nix

The button mActionShowPresets allows you to add Presets views in the legend. It means that you can choose to display some layer with specific categorization and add this view to the Presets list. To add a preset view just click on mActionShowPresets, choose Add Preset... from the drop down menu and give a name to the preset. After that you will see a list with all the presets that you can recall pressing on the mActionShowPresets button.

Todos os preestabelecidos adicionados estarão presentes no desenho de impressão afim de permitir a criação de um desenho de mapa de mapa com base em seus pontos de visão específicos (ver Propriedades principais).

Uma camada pode ser selecionada e arrastada para cima ou para baixo na legenda para mudar a Z-ordenação. Z-ordenação significa que as camadas listadas mais perto do topo da legenda são desenhadas sobre camadas listadas mais abaixo na legenda.

Nota

This behaviour can be overridden by the ‘Layer order’ panel.

Layers in the legend window can be organised into groups. There are two ways to do this:

  1. Press the mActionFolder icon to add a new group. Type in a name for the group and press Enter. Now click on an existing layer and drag it onto the group.
  2. Selecione algumas camadas, clique direito na janela de legenda e escolha Grupo selecionado. As camadas selecionadas serão automaticamente colocadas em um novo grupo.

Para trazer uma camada de um grupo, você pode arrastá-la de fora, ou clique direito sobre ela e escolha Faça o item toplevel. Os grupos também podem ser aninhados dentro de outros grupos.

A caixa de seleção de um grupo vai mostrar ou ocultar todas as camadas do grupo com apenas um clique.

The content of the right mouse button context menu depends on whether the selected legend item is a raster or a vector layer. For GRASS vector layers, mActionToggleEditing Toggle editing is not available. See section Digitalizando e editando uma camada vetorial GRASS for information on editing GRASS vector layers.

Right mouse button menu for raster layers

  • Zoom to Layer
  • Show in overview
  • Zoom to Best Scale (100%)
  • Remove
  • Duplicate
  • Estabelecer escala de visibilidade da camada

  • Set Layer CRS
  • Definir SRC do projeto a partir da Camada

  • Styles ‣
  • Save as ...
  • Save As Layer Definition File ...
  • Propriedades...

  • Renomear

Additionally, according to layer position and selection

  • Move to Top-level
  • Agrupar Selecionados

Right mouse button menu for vector layers

  • Zoom to Layer
  • Show in overview
  • Remove
  • Duplicate
  • Estabelecer escala de visibilidade da camada

  • Set Layer CRS
  • Definir SRC do projeto a partir da Camada

  • Styles ‣
  • Open Attribute Table
  • Toggle Editing (not available for GRASS layers)
  • Save As ...
  • Save As Layer Definition Style
  • Filtrar

  • Show Feature Count
  • Propriedades...

  • Renomear

Additionally, according to layer position and selection

  • Move to Top-level
  • Agrupar Selecionados

Right mouse button menu for layer groups

  • Zoom to Group
  • Remove
  • Set Group CRS
  • Renomear

  • Add Group

É possível selecionar mais de uma camada ou grupo ao mesmo tempo segurando a tecla Ctrl enquanto seleciona as camadas com o botão esquerdo do mouse. Pode mover todas as camadas selecionadas para um novo grupo ao mesmo tempo.

You may also delete more than one layer or group at once by selecting several layers with the Ctrl key and pressing Ctrl+D afterwards. This way, all selected layers or groups will be removed from the layers list.

Trabalhando com a Ordem da legenda de camada independente

There is a panel that allows you to define an independent drawing order for the map legend. You can activate it in the menu Settings ‣ Panels ‣ Layer order. This feature allows you to, for instance, order your layers in order of importance, but still display them in the correct order (see figure_layer_order). Checking the checkbox Control rendering order box underneath the list of layers will cause a revert to default behavior.

Figure Layer Order:

../../../_images/layer_order.png

Define a legend independent layer order nix

Visualização do mapa

This is the “business end” of QGIS — maps are displayed in this area! The map displayed in this window will depend on the vector and raster layers you have chosen to load (see sections that follow for more information on how to load layers). The map view can be panned, shifting the focus of the map display to another region, and it can be zoomed in and out. Various other operations can be performed on the map as described in the toolbar description above. The map view and the legend are tightly bound to each other — the maps in view reflect changes you make in the legend area.

Dica

Ampliando o mapa com a roda do mouse

Você pode usar a roda do mouse para zoom in e out no mapa. Coloque o cursor do mouse dentro da área do mapa e gire a roda para a frente (longe de você) para ampliar e para trás (para você) para diminuir o zoom. A posição do cursor do mouse é o centro onde o zoom ocorre. Você pode personalizar o comportamento do zoom roda do mouse usando o :guilabel: aba Ferramentas do mapa sob o menu Configurações ‣ Opções.

Dica

Percorrendo o mapa com as setas e a barra de espaço

Você pode usar as setas do teclado para se deslocar no mapa. Coloque o cursor do mouse dentro da área do mapa e clique na seta para a direita para pan Leste, seta para a esquerda para pan Oeste, seta para cima para pan Norte e para baixo seta para deslocar Sul. Você também pode deslocar o mapa utilizando a barra de espaço ou clique na roda do mouse.

Barra de Status

The status bar shows you your current position in map coordinates (e.g., meters or decimal degrees) as the mouse pointer is moved across the map view. To the left of the coordinate display in the status bar is a small button that will toggle between showing coordinate position or the view extents of the map view as you pan and zoom in and out.

Next to the coordinate display you will find the scale display. It shows the scale of the map view. If you zoom in or out, QGIS shows you the current scale. There is a scale selector, which allows you to choose between predefined scales from 1:500 to 1:1000000.

To the right of the scale display you can define a current clockwise rotation for your map view in degrees.

A progress bar in the status bar shows the progress of rendering as each layer is drawn to the map view. In some cases, such as the gathering of statistics in raster layers, the progress bar will be used to show the status of lengthy operations.

If a new plugin or a plugin update is available, you will see a message at the far left of the status bar. On the right side of the status bar, there is a small checkbox which can be used to temporarily prevent layers being rendered to the map view (see section Renderização below). The icon mIconStopRendering immediately stops the current map rendering process.

To the right of the render functions, you find the EPSG code of the current project CRS and a projector icon. Clicking on this opens the projection properties for the current project.

Dica

Calculando a escala correta do seu Mapa da tela/visualização

When you start QGIS, the default units are degrees, and this means that QGIS will interpret any coordinate in your layer as specified in degrees. To get correct scale values, you can either change this setting to meters manually in the General tab under Settings ‣ Project Properties, or you can select a project CRS clicking on the mIconProjectionDisabled Current CRS: icon in the lower right-hand corner of the status bar. In the last case, the units are set to what the project projection specifies (e.g., ‘+units=m’).