Use your own data for this section. You will need:
13.1. Create a base map
Before doing any data analysis, you will need a base map, which will provide
your analysis result with context.
13.1.1. Add the point layer
- Add in the point layer. Based on the level that you’re doing the course at,
do only what is listed in the appropriate section below:
- Label the points according to a unique attribute, such as place names. Use a
small font and keep the labels inconspicuous. The information should be
available, but shouldn’t be a main feature of the map.
- Classify the points themselves into different colors based on a category.
For example, categories could include “tourist destination”, “police
station”, and “town center”.
- Do the same as the section.
- Classify the point size by importance: the more significant a feature, the
larger its point. However, don’t exceed the point size of 2.00.
- For features that aren’t located at a single point (for example,
provincial/regional names, or town names at a large scale), don’t assign any
point at all.
- Don’t use point symbols to symbolize the layer at all. Instead, use labels
centered over the points; the point symbols themselves should have no size.
- Use Data defined settings to style the labels into meaningful
- Add appropriate columns to the attribute data if necessary. When doing so,
don’t create fictional data - rather, use the Field Calculator to
populate the new columns, based on appropriate existing values in the
13.1.2. Add the line layer
- Add the road layer and then change its symbology. Don’t label the roads.
- Change the road symbology to a light color with a broad line. Make it
somewhat transparent as well.
- Create a symbol with multiple symbol layers. The resulting symbol should look
like a real road. You can use a simple symbol for this; for example, a black
line with a thin white solid line running down the center. It can be more
elaborate as well, but the resulting map should not look too busy.
- If your dataset has a high density of roads at the scale you want to show the
map at, you should have two road layers: the elaborate road-like symbol, and
a simpler symbol at smaller scales. (Use scale-based visibility to make them
switch out at appropriate scales.)
- All symbols should have multiple symbol layers. Use symbols to make them
- Do the same as in the section above.
- In addition, roads should be classified. When using realistic road-like
symbols, each type of road should have an appropriate symbol; for example, a
highway should appear to have two lanes in either direction.
13.1.3. Add the polygon layer
- Add the land use layer and change its symbology.
- Classify the layer according to land use. Use solid colors.
- Classify the layer according to land use. Where appropriate, incorporate
symbol layers, different symbol types, etc. Keep the results looking subdued
and uniform, however. Keep in mind that this will be part of a backdrop!
- Use rule-based classification to classify the land use into general
categories, such as “urban”, “rural”, “nature reserve”, etc.
13.1.4. Create the raster backdrop
- Create a hillshade from the DEM, and use it as an overlay for a classified
version of the DEM itself. You could also use the Relief plugin
(as shown in the lesson on plugins).
13.1.5. Finalize the base map
- Using the resources above, create a base map using some or all of the
layers. This map should include all the basic information needed to orient
the user, as well as being visually unified / “simple”.