7.2. Lesson: Analiza Vectorială¶
De asemenea, datele vectoriale pot fi analizate, pentru a descoperi modul în care diferite entități interacționează între ele, în spațiu. În GIS există o multitudine de funcții dedicate analizei, și de aceea nu le vom parcurge pe toate. Mai degrabă, ne vom pune o întrebare și vom încerca să găsim un răspuns cu ajutorul instrumentelor pe care le oferă QGIS.
Scopul acestei lecții: De a pune o întrebare și de a o rezolva folosind instrumentele de analiză.
7.2.1. Procesul GIS¶
Înainte de a începe, ar fi utilă o scurtă trecere în revistă a procesului pe care îl vom folosi la rezolvarea oricărei probleme GIS. Pașii care trebuie urmați sunt:
7.2.2. The Problem¶
Let’s start off the process by deciding on a problem to solve. For example, you are an estate agent and you are looking for a residential property in Swellendam for clients who have the following criteria:
It needs to be in Swellendam
It must be within reasonable driving distance of a school (say 1km)
It must be more than 100m squared in size
Closer than 50m to a main road
Closer than 500m to a restaurant
7.2.3. The Data¶
Pentru a răspunde la aceste întrebări, vom avea nevoie de următoarele date:
The residential properties (buildings) in the area
The roads in and around the town
The location of schools and restaurants
The size of buildings
All of this data is available through OSM and you should find that the dataset you have been using throughout this manual can also be used for this lesson.
If you want to download data from another area jump to Introduction Chapter section to read how to do it.
Although OSM downloads have consistent data fields, the coverage and detail does vary. If you find that your chosen region does not contain information on restaurants, for example, you may need to chose a different region.
7.2.4. Follow Along: Start a Project and get the Data¶
We first need to load the data to work with.
Start a new QGIS project
If you want you can add a background map. Open the Browser and load the OSM background map from the XYZ Tiles menu.
training_data.gpkgGeopackage database load all the files we will use in this chapter:
Zoom to the layer extent to see Swellendam, South Africa
Before proceeding we should filter the roads layer in order to have only some specific road types to work with.
Some of the roads in OSM dataset are listed as
footway. We want to exclude these from our dataset and focus on
the other road types, more suitable for this exercise.
Moreover, OSM data might not be updated everywhere and we will also exclude
Right click on the roads layer and choose Filter….
In the dialog that pops up we can filter these features with the following expression:
"highway" NOT IN ('footway','path','unclassified','track') OR "highway" != NULL
The concatenation of the two operators
INmeans to exclude all the unwanted features that have these attributes in the
!= NULLcombined with the
ORoperator is excluding roads with no values in the
The map with all the data should look like the following one:
7.2.5. Try Yourself Convertiți CRS-ul Straturilor¶
Because we are going to be measuring distances within our layers, we need to change the layers» CRS. To do this, we need to select each layer in turn, save the layer to a new one with our new projection, then import that new layer into our map.
You have many different options, e.g. you can export each layer as a new
Shapefile, you can append the layers to an existing GeoPackage file or you can
create another GeoPackage file and fill it with the new reprojected layers. We
will show the last option so the
training_data.gpkg will remain clean.
But feel free to choose the best workflow for yourself.
In this example, we are using the WGS 84 / UTM zone 34S CRS, but you may use a UTM CRS which is more appropriate for your region.
Right click the roads layer in the Layers panel;
Click Export –> Save Features As…;
In the Save Vector Layer As dialog choose GeoPackage as Format;
Click on … of File name parameter and name the new GeoPackage as vector_analysis;
Change the Layer name as roads_34S;
Change the CRS parameter to WGS 84 / UTM zone 34S;
Finally click on OK:
This will create the new GeoPackage database and fill it with the roads_34S layer.
Repeat this process for each layer, creating a new layer in the
vector_analysis.gpkgGeoPackage file with
_34Sappended to the original name and removing each of the old layers from the project.
When you choose to save a layer to an existing GeoPackage, QGIS will append that layer in the GeoPackage.
Once you have completed the process for each layer, right click on any layer and click Zoom to layer extent to focus the map to the area of interest.
Now that we have converted OSM’s data to a UTM projection, we can begin our calculations.
7.2.6. Follow Along: Analiza Problemei: Distanțele Dintre Școli și Drumuri¶
QGIS vă permite să calculați distanțele față de orice obiect vectorial.
Make sure that only the roads_34S and buildings_34S layers are visible, to simplify the map while you’re working
Click on theto open the analytical core of QGIS. Basically: all algorithms (for vector and raster) analysis are available within this toolbox.
We start by calculating the area around the roads_34S by using the Buffer algorithm. You can find it expanding the group.
Or you can type
bufferin the search menu in the upper part of the toolbox:
Double click on it to open the algorithm dialog
Set it up like this
The default Distance is in meters because our input dataset is in a Projected Coordinate System that uses meter as its basic measurement unit. You can use the combo box to choose other projected units like kilometers, yards, etc.
If you are trying to make a buffer on a layer with a Geographical Coordinate System, Processing will warn you and suggest to reproject the layer to a metric Coordinate System.
By default Processing creates temporary layers and adds them to the Layers panel. You can also append the result to the GeoPackage database by:
clicking on the … button and choose Save to GeoPackage…
naming the new layer roads_buffer_50m
and saving it in the
Click on Run and then close the Buffer dialog.
Acum, harta dvs. va arăta în felul următor:
If your new layer is at the top of the Layers list, it will probably obscure much of your map, but this gives you all the areas in your region which are within 50m of a road.
However, you’ll notice that there are distinct areas within your buffer, which correspond to all the individual roads. To get rid of this problem:
Uncheck the roads_buffer_50m layer and re-create the buffer using the settings shown here:
Note that we’re now checking the Dissolve result box
Save the output as roads_buffer_50m_dissolved
Click Run and close the Buffer dialog again
Once you’ve added the layer to the Layers panel, it will look like this:
Acum, nu mai există subdiviziuni inutile.
The Short Help on the right side of the dialog explains how the algorithm works. If you need more information, just click on the Help button in the bottom part to open a more detailed guide of the algorithm.
7.2.7. Try Yourself Distanța față de școli¶
Utilizați aceeași abordare de mai sus, și creați un tampon pentru școlile dumneavoastră.
It needs to be 1 km in radius. Save the new layer in the
vector_analysis.gpkg file as schools_buffer_1km_dissolved.
7.2.8. Follow Along: Suprapunerea zonelor¶
Now we have areas where the road is 50 meters away and there’s a school within 1 km (direct line, not by road). But obviously, we only want the areas where both of these criteria are satisfied. To do that, we’ll need to use the Intersect tool. You can find it in group within .
The input layers are the two buffers
The saving location is, once again, the
And the output layer name is road_school_buffers_intersect
In the image below, the blue areas show us where both distance criteria are satisfied at once!
You may remove the two buffer layers and only keep the one that shows where they overlap, since that’s what we really wanted to know in the first place:
7.2.9. Follow Along: Extract the Buildings¶
Now you’ve got the area that the buildings must overlap. Next, you want to extract the buildings in that area.
Look for the menu entrywithin
Set up the algorithm dialog like in the following picture
Click Run and then close the dialog
You’ll probably find that not much seems to have changed. If so, move the well_located_houses layer to the top of the layers list, then zoom in.
The red buildings are those which match our criteria, while the buildings in green are those which do not.
Now you have two separated layers and can remove buildings_34S from layer list.
7.2.10. Try Yourself Filtrarea în Continuare a Clădirilor noastre¶
We now have a layer which shows us all the buildings within 1km of a school and within 50m of a road. We now need to reduce that selection to only show buildings which are within 500m of a restaurant.
Using the processes described above, create a new layer called houses_restaurants_500m which further filters your well_located_houses layer to show only those which are within 500m of a restaurant.
7.2.11. Follow Along: Selectarea Clădirilor de Mărimea Potrivită¶
To see which buildings are of the correct size (more than 100 square meters), we first need to calculate their size.
Set it up like this
We are creating the new field AREA that will contain the area of each building square meters.
Click OK. The AREA field has been added at the end of the attribute table.
Faceți clic iarăși pe butonul de editare, apoi salvați modificările atunci când vi se solicită acest lucru.
Build a query as earlier in this lesson
Clic pe OK
Your map should now only show you those buildings which match our starting criteria and which are more than 100m squared in size.
7.2.12. Try Yourself¶
Save your solution as a new layer, using the approach you learned above for doing so. The file should be saved within the same GeoPackage database, with the name solution.
7.2.13. In Conclusion¶
Using the GIS problem-solving approach together with QGIS vector analysis tools, you were able to solve a problem with multiple criteria quickly and easily.
7.2.14. What’s Next?¶
În lecția următoare vom vedea modul de calcul al traseului cel mai scurt dintre două puncte.