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Интерфейс QGIS

When QGIS starts, you are presented with the GUI as shown in the figure (the numbers 1 through 5 in yellow circles are discussed below).

Figure QGIS GUI 1:

../../../_images/startup.png

QGIS с загруженным демонстрационным набором данных nix

Примечание

Внешний вид элементов интерфейса (заголовки окон и т.п.) может отличаться, в зависисмости от операционной системы и менеджера окон.

Интерфейс QGIS разделяется на пять областей:

  1. Главное меню

  2. Панель инструментов

  3. Легенда

  4. Область карты

  5. Строка состояния

Компоненты интерфейса QGIS, комбинации клавиш и контекстная справка более подробно описаны в следующих разделах.

Панель инструментов

The toolbar provides access to most of the same functions as the menus, plus additional tools for interacting with the map. Each toolbar item has pop-up help available. Hold your mouse over the item and a short description of the tool’s purpose will be displayed.

Every menu bar can be moved around according to your needs. Additionally, every menu bar can be switched off using your right mouse button context menu, holding the mouse over the toolbars (read also Панели инструментов).

Совет

Восстановление панелей инструментов

If you have accidentally hidden all your toolbars, you can get them back by choosing menu option Settings ‣ Toolbars ‣. If a toolbar disappears under Windows, which seems to be a problem in QGIS from time to time, you have to remove key \HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\QGIS\qgis\UI\state in the registry. When you restart QGIS, the key is written again with the default state, and all toolbars are visible again.

Легенда

The map legend area lists all the layers in the project. The checkbox in each legend entry can be used to show or hide the layer.

A layer can be selected and dragged up or down in the legend to change the Z-ordering. Z-ordering means that layers listed nearer the top of the legend are drawn over layers listed lower down in the legend.

Примечание

This behaviour can be overridden by the ‘Layer order’ panel.

Layers in the legend window can be organised into groups. There are two ways to do this:

  1. Right click in the legend window and choose Add New Group. Type in a name for the group and press Enter. Now click on an existing layer and drag it onto the group.
  2. Select some layers, right click in the legend window and choose Group Selected. The selected layers will automatically be placed in a new group.

To bring a layer out of a group, you can drag it out, or right click on it and choose Make to toplevel item. Groups can also be nested inside other groups.

Флажок возле имени группы даёт возможность переключать видимость всех слоев в группе одним действием.

The content of the right mouse button context menu depends on whether the selected legend item is a raster or a vector layer. For GRASS vector layers, mActionToggleEditing Toggle editing is not available. See section Оцифровка и правка векторных слоёв GRASS for information on editing GRASS vector layers.

Контекстное меню для растровых слоев

  • Увеличить до границ слоя

  • Увеличить до наилучшего масштаба (100%)

  • Растянуть значения по текущему охвату

  • Показать в обзоре

  • Удалить

  • Дублировать

  • Изменить систему координат

  • Выбрать систему координат слоя для проекта

  • Сохранить как...

  • Свойства

  • Переименовать

  • Копировать стиль

  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

Дополнительно, в зависимости от положения слоя

  • Сделать элементом первого уровня

  • Сгруппировать выделенное

Контекстное меню для векторных слоев

  • Увеличить до границ слоя

  • Показать в обзоре

  • Удалить

  • Дублировать

  • Изменить систему координат

  • Выбрать систему координат слоя для проекта

  • Открыть таблицу атрибутов

  • Режим редактирования (недоступен для слоёв GRASS)

  • Сохроанить как...

  • Save Selection As
  • Фильтр...

  • Показать количество объектов

  • Свойства

  • Переименовать

  • Копировать стиль

  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

Дополнительно, в зависимости от положения слоя

  • Сделать элементом первого уровня

  • Сгруппировать выделенное

Контекстное меню для групп слоев

  • Увеличить до группы

  • Удалить

  • Изменить систему координат группы

  • Переименовать

  • Add New Group
  • Expand all
  • Collapse all
  • Update Drawing Order

При зажатой клавише CTRL можно выделять несколько слоёв или групп одновременно. Это позволит переместить все выделенные слои из одной группы в другую.

You may also delete more than one layer or group at once by selecting several layers with the Ctrl key and pressing Ctrl+D afterwards. This way, all selected layers or groups will be removed from the layers list.

Независящий от легенды порядок отрисовки

There is a panel that allows you to define an independent drawing order for the map legend. You can activate it in the menu Settings ‣ Panels ‣ Layer order. This feature allows you to, for instance, order your layers in order of importance, but still display them in the correct order (see figure_layer_order). Checking the checkbox Control rendering order box underneath the list of layers will cause a revert to default behavior.

Figure Layer Order:

../../../_images/layer_order.png

Независимый от легенды порядок отрисовки слоёв nix

Область карты

This is the “business end” of QGIS — maps are displayed in this area! The map displayed in this window will depend on the vector and raster layers you have chosen to load (see sections that follow for more information on how to load layers). The map view can be panned, shifting the focus of the map display to another region, and it can be zoomed in and out. Various other operations can be performed on the map as described in the toolbar description above. The map view and the legend are tightly bound to each other — the maps in view reflect changes you make in the legend area.

Совет

Масштабирование карты с помощью колеса мыши

You can use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out on the map. Place the mouse cursor inside the map area and roll the wheel forward (away from you) to zoom in and backwards (towards you) to zoom out. The zoom is centered on the mouse cursor position. You can customize the behavior of the mouse wheel zoom using the Map tools tab under the Settings ‣ Options menu.

Совет

Панорамирование карты, используя клавиши со стрелками и клавишу пробела

You can use the arrow keys to pan the map. Place the mouse cursor inside the map area and click on the right arrow key to pan east, left arrow key to pan west, up arrow key to pan north and down arrow key to pan south. You can also pan the map using the space bar or the click on mouse wheel: just move the mouse while holding down space bar or click on mouse wheel.

Строка состояния

The status bar shows you your current position in map coordinates (e.g., meters or decimal degrees) as the mouse pointer is moved across the map view. To the left of the coordinate display in the status bar is a small button that will toggle between showing coordinate position or the view extents of the map view as you pan and zoom in and out.

Next to the coordinate display you will find the scale display. It shows the scale of the map view. If you zoom in or out, QGIS shows you the current scale. There is a scale selector, which allows you to choose between predefined scales from 1:500 to 1:1000000.

A progress bar in the status bar shows the progress of rendering as each layer is drawn to the map view. In some cases, such as the gathering of statistics in raster layers, the progress bar will be used to show the status of lengthy operations.

If a new plugin or a plugin update is available, you will see a message at the far left of the status bar. On the right side of the status bar, there is a small checkbox which can be used to temporarily prevent layers being rendered to the map view (see section Рендеринг below). The icon mIconStopRendering immediately stops the current map rendering process.

To the right of the render functions, you find the EPSG code of the current project CRS and a projector icon. Clicking on this opens the projection properties for the current project.

Совет

Calculating the Correct Scale of Your Map Canvas

When you start QGIS, the default units are degrees, and this means that QGIS will interpret any coordinate in your layer as specified in degrees. To get correct scale values, you can either change this setting to meters manually in the General tab under Settings ‣ Project Properties, or you can select a project CRS clicking on the mIconProjectionDisabled CRS status icon in the lower right-hand corner of the status bar. In the last case, the units are set to what the project projection specifies (e.g., ‘+units=m’).