*****************************
Period detection and plotting
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.. currentmodule:: gammapt.time.period
.. currentmodule:: gammapy.time.plot_periodogram
Introduction
============
`~gammapy.time` provides methods for period detection in time series, i.e. light
curves of :math:`\gamma`-ray sources. The period detection is implemented in the
scope of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, a method that detects periods in unevenly
sampled time series typical for :math:`\gamma`-ray observations. We refer to the
`astropy.stats.LombScargle`-class and documentation within for an introduction
to the Lomb-Scargle algorithm, interpretation and usage [1]_.
With `~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram`, the analysis is extended to a more
general case where the unevenly sampled time series is contaminated by outliers,
i.e. due to the source's high states. This robust periodogram includes the naive
Lomb-Scargle implementation as a special case.
`~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` returns the periodogram of the input. This is
done by fitting a single sinusoidal model to the light curve and computing a
normalised :math:`\chi^2`-statistic for each period of interest. The
Lomb-Scargle algorithm uses a naive least square regression and thus, is
sensitive to outliers in the light curve. Contrary,
`~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` uses different loss functions that account
for outliers [2]_. The location of the highest periodogram peak is assumed to be
the period of an intrinsic periodic behaviour.
The result's significance can be estimated in terms of a false alarm probability
(FAP) with the respective function of the `astropy.stats.LombScargle`-class. It
computes the probability of the highest periodogram peak being observed by
chance if the underlying light curve would consist of Gaussian white-noise only.
Both, periodogram and light curve can be plotted with
`~gammapy.time.plot_periodogram`.
See the Astropy docs for more details about the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and
its false alarm probability [1]_. The loss functions for the robust periodogram
are provided by `scipy.optimize.least_squares` [2]_.
Getting Started
===============
Basic Usage
-----------
`~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` takes a light curve with data format ``time``
and ``flux`` as input. It returns the period grid, the periodogram peaks and the
location of the highest periodogram peak.
.. code-block:: python
>>> import numpy as np
>>> from gammapy.time import robust_periodogram
>>> time = np.linspace(0.1, 10, 100)
>>> flux = np.sin(2 * np.pi * time)
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux)
>>> periodogram['best_period']
0.99
The returned period diverges from the true period of :math:`P = 1`, since this
period is not contained in the linear period grid automatically computed by
`~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram`.
Period Grid
-----------
The checked periods can be specified optionally by forwarding an array
``periods``.
.. code-block:: python
>>> periods = np.linspace(0.1, 10, 100)
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux, periods=periods)
>>> periodogram['best_period']
1.0
If not given, a linear grid will be computed limited by the length of the light
curve and the Nyquist frequency.
Measurement Uncertainties
-------------------------
`~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` can also handle measurement uncertainties.
They can be forwarded as an array ``flux_err``.
.. code-block:: python
>>> rand = np.random.RandomState(42)
>>> flux_err = 0.1 * rand.rand(100)
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux, flux_err=flux_err, periods=periods)
>>> periodogram['best_period']
1.0
Loss Function and Loss Scale
----------------------------
To obtain a robust periodogram, loss function ``loss`` and loss scale parameter
``scale`` need to be given.
.. code-block:: python
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux, loss='huber', scale=1)
For available parameters, see [2]_. The choice of ``loss`` and ``scale`` depends
on the data set and needs to be optimised by the user.
If the loss function ``linear`` is used, `~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` is
performed with an ordinary linear least square regression. It is then identical
to `astropy.stats.LombScargle` and ``scale`` can be set arbitrarily. This is the
default setting.
.. code-block:: python
>>> from astropy.stats import LombScargle
>>> periods = np.linspace(1.1, 10, 90)
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux, periods=periods)
>>> LSP = LombScargle(time, flux).power(1. / periods)
>>> np.isclose(periodogram['power'], LSP).all() == True
True
Also, if ``scale`` is set to infinity, this results in the Lomb-Scargle
periodogram for any ``loss``. Default settings are recommended if no outliers
are expected in the light curve.
False Alarm Probabilities
-------------------------
For the determination of peak significance in terms of a false alarm
probability, see [1]_ and [7]_. Methods for the false alarm probability can be
chosen from ``methods`` [3]_. The respective modul can be called, for example
with the ``Baluev``-method:
.. code-block:: python
>>> from astropy.stats.lombscargle import _statistics
>>> periods = np.linspace(0.1, 10, 100)
>>> periodogram = robust_periodogram(time, flux, periods=periods)
>>> fap = _statistics.false_alarm_probability(
... periodogram['power'].max(), 1. / periodogram['periods'].min(),
... time, flux, flux_err, 'standard', 'baluev'
... )
>>> fap
0.0
If other loss functions than ``linear`` are used, using the ``Bootstrap``-method
is not recommended, because it internally calls `astropy.stats.LombScargle`
(linear least square regression) which is not identical to non-linear robust
periodogram.
Plotting
--------
For plotting, `~gammapy.time.plot_periodogram` can be used. It takes the output
of `~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` as input.
.. code-block:: python
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> from gammapy.time import plot_periodogram
>>> fig = plot_periodogram(
... time, flux, periodogram['periods'], periodogram['power'],
... flux_err, periodogram['best_period'], fap
... )
>>> fig.show()
Example
=======
An example of detecting a period with `~gammapy.time.robust_periodogram` is
shown in the figure below. The code can be found under [4]_. The light curve of
the X-ray binary LS 5039 is used, observed in 2005 with H.E.S.S. at energies
above :math:`0.1 \mathrm{TeV}` [4]_. The robust periodogram reveals the period
of :math:`P = (3.907 \pm 0.001) \mathrm{d}` in agreement with [5]_ and [6]_.
.. gp-image:: time/example_robust_periodogram.png
:width: 100%
The maximum FAP of the highest periodogram peak is estimated to
:math:`4.06e^{-19}` with the :math:`\texttt{Baluev}`-method. The other methods
return following FAP:
=========== ===================
method FAP
=========== ===================
'single' :math:`1.04e^{-21}`
'naive' :math:`5.40e^{-16}`
'davies' :math:`4.05e^{-15}`
'baluev' :math:`4.05e^{-15}`
'bootstrap' :math:`0.0`
=========== ===================
The plot of the light curve shows no evidence for outliers. Thus,
:math:`\texttt{linear}` is used as ``loss`` with an arbitrary ``scale`` of
:math:`1`. As periods, a linear grid is forwarded that is limited by :math:`10
\mathrm{d}` to decrease computation time in favour for a higher resolution of
:math:`0.001 \mathrm{d}`.
The periodogram has many spurious peaks, which are due to several factors:
1. Errors in observations lead to leakage of power from the true peaks.
2. The signal is not a perfect sinusoid, so additional peaks can indicate higher-frequency components in the signal.
3. Sampling biases the periodogram and leads to failure modes.
Its impact can be qualified by the spectral window function.
This is the periodogram of the observation window and can be computed
by setting ``flux`` and ``flux err`` to one and running `astropy.stats.LombScargle`.
.. gp-image:: time/example_spectral_window_function.png
:width: 100%
It shows a prominent peak around one day that arises from the nightly
observation cycle. Aliases in the light curve's periodogram,
:math:`P_{{alias}}`, are expected to appear at :math:`f_{{true}} + n
f_{{window}}`. In terms of periods
.. math::
P_{{alias}} = (\frac{{1}}{{P_{true}}} + n f_{{window}})^{{-1}}
for integer values of :math:`n` [7]_. For the peak in the spectral window function at
:math:`f_{{window}} = 0.997 d^{{-1}}`, this corresponds to the third highest peak in
the periodogram at :math:`P_{{alias}} = 0.794`.
.. [1] Astropy docs, Lomb-Scargle Periodograms,
`Link `__
.. [2] Scipy docs, scipy.optimize.least_squares
`Link `__
.. [3] Astropy docs, Utilities for computing periodogram statistics.
`Link `__
.. [4] Gammapy docs, period detection example,
`Link `__
.. [5] F. Aharonian, 3.9 day orbital modulation in the TeV gamma-ray flux and spectrum from the X-ray binary LS 5039,
`Link `__
.. [6] J. Casares, A possible black hole in the gamma-ray microquasar LS 5039,
`Link `__
.. [7] Jacob T. VanderPlas, Understanding the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram,
`Link `__