3. Writing code in the PyQGIS Cookbook

If you are planning to add or update some chapters of the PyQGIS 開發者 Cookbook, then you should follow some rules to enable automatic testing of the code snippets.

Testing is really important because it allows automatic checking of the code. Code snippets with errors or code that uses outdated methods will fail and the notification will help you fix the problems.

For testing, we use the Sphinx doctest extension. Refer to the extension documentation for more detailed information.

3.1. How to write testable code snippets

Writing testable code snippets is not so different from the old method. Basically, you need to use a different Sphinx directive.

3.1.1. Doctest sphinx directives

Instead of embedding the code in a .. code-block:: python directive (which would highlight the code syntax automatically), you now need to embed it in a .. testcode::. That is, instead of this:

.. code-block:: python

   crs = QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem("EPSG:4326")
   assert crs.isValid()

You now use this:

.. testcode::

   crs = QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem("EPSG:4326")
   assert crs.isValid()

After you wrote the example code, you should add some assertion that will evaluate the code and that will be run automatically.

In the above example, you are creating a crs and with assert crs.isValid() you test if it is valid. If the code has a wrong python syntax or the crs.isValid() returns False, this code snippet will fail during testing.

To successfully run the tests on snippets, you must import all the classes and declare any variables used in the code snippets. You can include those in the code snippet itself (visible in the HTML pages) or you can add them to a .. testsetup:: directive (hidden in the HTML pages). The .. testsetup:: needs to be placed before the .. testcode:::

.. testsetup::

   from qgis.core import QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem

.. testcode::

   crs = QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem("EPSG:4326")
   assert crs.isValid()

If the code snippet doesn't create objects (and therefore you cannot use something like assert object.isValid()), you can test the code using the print() method, then add the expected results within a .. testoutput:: directive to compare the expected output:

.. testcode::

   print("QGIS CRS ID:", crs.srsid())
   print("PostGIS SRID:", crs.postgisSrid())

.. testoutput::

   QGIS CRS ID: 3452
   PostGIS SRID: 4326

By default, the content of .. testoutput:: is shown in the HTML output. To hide it from the HTML use the :hide: option:

.. testoutput::
   :hide:

   QGIS CRS ID: 3452
   PostGIS SRID: 4326

注解

If the code snippet contains any print statements, you MUST add a testoutput with the expected outputs; otherwise the test will fail.

3.1.2. Grouping tests

For each rst document, the code snippets are tested sequentially, which means you can use one .. testsetup:: for all the following code snippets and that later snippets will have access to variables declared in earlier ones in the document.

Alternatively, you can use groups to break down the examples on the same page in different tests.

You add the code snippet to groups by adding one or more group names (separated by commas) in the respective directive:

.. testcode:: crs_crsfromID [, morenames]

   crs = QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem("EPSG:4326")
   assert crs.isValid()

The doctest will pick each group snippets and run them independently.

注解

Use group names that make sense with the related content. Use something similar to <chapter>_<subchapter>, for example: crs_intro, crs_fromwkt. In case of failures, this will help identifying where the failures occur.

If you don't declare any group, the code snippet will be added to a group named default. If instead, you use * as a group name, the snippet will be used in all testing groups, something normally usefull to use in the test setup:

.. testsetup:: *

   from qgis.core import QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem

3.2. How to test snippets on your local machine

注解

Instructions are valid for Linux system.

To test Python code snippets, you need a QGIS installation. For this, there are many options. You can:

  • Use your system QGIS installation with Sphinx from a Python virtual environment:

    make -f venv.mk doctest
    
  • Use a manually built installation of QGIS. You'd need to:

    1. Create a custom Makefile extension on top of the venv.mk file, for example a user.mk file with the following content:

      # Root installation folder
      QGIS_PREFIX_PATH = /home/user/apps/qgis-master
      
      include venv.mk
      

      Or

      # build output folder
      QGIS_PREFIX_PATH = /home/user/dev/QGIS-build-master/output
      
      include venv.mk
      
    2. Then, use it to run target doctest:

      make -f user.mk doctest
      
  • Run target doctest inside the official QGIS docker image:

    make -f docker.mk doctest
    

    You have to install Docker first because this uses a docker image with QGIS in it.