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In this lesson we will see how to add new attributes to a vector layer based on a mathematical expression, using the vector calculator.

We already know how to use the raster calculator to create new raster layers using mathematical expressions. A similar algorithm is available for vector layers, and generates a new layer with the same attributes of the input layer, plus an additional one with the result of the expression entered. The algorithm is called *Field calculator* and has the following parameters dialog.

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In newer versions of Processing the interface has changed considerably, it’s more powerful and easier to use.

Here are a few examples of using that algorithm.

First, let’s calculate the population density of white people in each polygon, which represents a census. We have two fields in the attributes table that we can use for that, namely `WHITE` and `SHAPE_AREA`. We just have to divide them and multiply by one million (to have density per square km), so we can use the following formula in the corresponding field

```
( "WHITE" / "SHAPE_AREA" ) * 1000000
```

The parameters dialog should be filled as shown below.

This will generate a new field named `WHITE_DENS`

Now let’s calculate the ratio between the `MALES` and `FEMALES` fields to create a new one that indicates if male population is numerically predominant over female population.

Enter the following formula

```
"MALES" / "FEMALES"
```

This time the parameters window should look like this before pressing the *OK* button.

In earlier version, since both fields are of type integer, the result would be truncated to an integer. In this case the formula should be: `1.0 * "MALES" / "FEMALES"`, to indicate that we want floating point number a result.

We can use conditional functions to have a new field with `male` or `female` text strings instead of those ratio value, using the following formula:

`CASE WHEN "MALES" > "FEMALES" THEN 'male' ELSE 'female' END`

The parameters window should look like this.

A python field calculator is available in the *Advanced Python field calculator*, which will not be detailed here