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Basic Grid Analysis
===================
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.. contents::
:local:
:depth: 1
DInfinity Contributing Area

Description
...........
Calculates a grid of specific catchment area which is the contributing area per
unit contour length using the multiple flow direction Dinfinity approach.
Dinfinity flow direction is defined as steepest downward slope on planar
triangular facets on a block centered grid. The contribution at each grid cell
is taken as the grid cell length (or when the optional weight grid input is used,
from the weight grid). The contributing area of each grid cell is then taken as
its own contribution plus the contribution from upslope neighbors that have some
fraction draining to it according to the Dinfinity flow model. The flow from each
cell either all drains to one neighbor, if the angle falls along a cardinal
(0, π/2, π, 3π/2) or ordinal (π/4, 3π/4, 5π/4, 7π/4) direction, or is on an angle
falling between the direct angle to two adjacent neighbors. In the latter case
the flow is proportioned between these two neighbor cells according to how close
the flow direction angle is to the direct angle to those cells. The contour
length used here is the grid cell size. The resulting units of the specific
catchment area are length units the same as those of the grid cell size.
.. figure:: img/tardemfig.gif
:align: center
When the optional weight grid is not used, the result is reported in terms of
specific catchment area, the upslope area per unit contour length, taken here as
the number of cells times grid cell length (cell area divided by cell length).
This assumes that grid cell length is the effective contour length, in the
definition of specific catchment area and does not distinguish any difference in
contour length dependent upon the flow direction. When the optional weight grid
is used, the result is reported directly as a summation of weights, without any
scaling.
If the optional outlet point shapefile is used, only the outlet cells and the
cells upslope (by the Dinfinity flow model) of them are in the domain to be
evaluated.
By default, the tool checks for edge contamination. This is defined as the
possibility that a contributing area value may be underestimated due to grid
cells outside of the domain not being counted. This occurs when drainage is
inwards from the boundaries or areas with "no data" values for elevation. The
algorithm recognizes this and reports "no data" for the contributing area. It is
common to see streaks of "no data" values extending inwards from boundaries
along flow paths that enter the domain at a boundary. This is the desired effect
and indicates that contributing area for these grid cells is unknown due to it
being dependent on terrain outside of the domain of data available. Edge
contamination checking may be turned off in cases where you know it is not an
issue or want to ignore these problems, if for example, the DEM has been clipped
along a watershed outline.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Dinfinity flow directions**
 ``DINF_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
 A grid of flow directions based on the Dinfinity flow method
using the steepest slope of a triangular facet.
Flow direction is determined as the direction of the steepest
downward slope on the 8 triangular facets of a 3x3 block
centered grid.
Flow direction is encoded as an angle in radians,
counterclockwise from east as a continuous (floating point)
quantity between 0 and 2π.
The resulting flow in a grid is then usually interpreted as
being proportioned between the two neighboring cells that
define the triangular facet with the steepest downward slope.
*  **Outlets**
Optional
 ``OUTLETS``
 [vector: point]
 A point shapefile defining the outlets of interest.
If this input file is used, only the cells upslope of these
outlet cells are considered to be within the domain being evaluated.
*  **Weight grid**
Optional
 ``WEIGHT_GRID``
 [raster]
 A grid giving contribution to flow for each cell.
These contributions (also sometimes referred to as weights or
loadings) are used in the contributing area accumulation.
If this input file is not used, the result is reported in
terms of specific catchment area (the upslope area per unit
contour length) taken as the number of cells times grid cell
length (cell area divided by cell length).
*  **Check for edge contamination**
 ``EDGE_CONTAMINATION``
 [boolean]
Default: True
 A flag that indicates whether the tool should check for
edge contamination.
Edge contamination is defined as the possibility that a
contributing area value may be underestimated due to the
fact that grid cells outside of the domain have not been
evaluated.
This occurs when drainage is inwards from the boundaries or
areas with NODATA values for elevation.
The algorithm recognizes this and reports NODATA for the
impated cells.
It is common to see streaks of NODATA values extending
inwards from boundaries along flow paths that enter the domain
at a boundary.
This is the desired effect and indicates that contributing area
for these grid cells is unknown due to it being dependent on
terrain outside of the domain of available data.
Edge contamination checking may be turned off in cases where
you know this is not an issue, or want to ignore these problems,
if for example, the DEM has been clipped along a watershed
outline.
*  **Dinfinity specific catchment area**
 ``DINF_CONTRIB_AREA``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output raster. One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Dinfinity specific catchment area**
 ``DINF_CONTRIB_AREA``
 [raster]
 A grid of specific catchment area which is the contributing
area per unit contour length using the multiple flow direction
Dinfinity approach.
The contributing area of each grid cell is then taken as its
own contribution plus the contribution from upslope neighbors
that have some fraction draining to it according to the
Dinfinity flow model.
DInfinity Flow Directions

Description
...........
Assigns a flow direction based on the Dinfinity flow method using the steepest
slope of a triangular facet (Tarboton, 1997, "A New Method for the Determination
of Flow Directions and Contributing Areas in Grid Digital Elevation Models",
Water Resources Research, 33(2): 309319). Flow direction is defined as steepest
downward slope on planar triangular facets on a block centered grid. Flow
direction is encoded as an angle in radians counterclockwise from east as a
continuous (floating point) quantity between 0 and 2π. The flow direction angle
is determined as the direction of the steepest downward slope on the eight
triangular facets formed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window centered on the grid cell of
interest. The resulting flow in a grid is then usually interpreted as being
proportioned between the two neighboring cells that define the triangular facet
with the steepest downward slope.
.. figure:: img/tardemfig.gif
:align: center
A blockcentered representation is used with each elevation value taken to
represent the elevation of the center of the corresponding grid cell. Eight planar
triangular facets are formed between each grid cell and its eight neighbors. Each
of these has a downslope vector which when drawn outwards from the center may be
at an angle that lies within or outside the 45 degree (π/4 radian) angle range
of the facet at the center point. If the slope vector angle is within the facet
angle, it represents the steepest flow direction on that facet. If the slope
vector angle is outside a facet, the steepest flow direction associated with that
facet is taken along the steepest edge. The slope and flow direction associated
with the grid cell is taken as the magnitude and direction of the steepest
downslope vector from all eight facets. Slope is measured as drop/distance,
i.e. tan of the slope angle.
In the case where no slope vectors are positive (downslope), the flow direction
is set using the method of Garbrecht and Martz (1997) for the determination of
flow across flat areas. This makes flat areas drain away from high ground and
towards low ground. The flow path grid to enforce drainage along existing streams
is an optional input, and if used, takes precedence over elevations for the
setting of flow directions.
The Dinfinity flow direction algorithm may be applied to a DEM that has not had
its pits filled, but it will then result in "no data" values for the Dinfinity
flow direction and slope associated with the lowest point of the pit.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Pit filled elevation**
 ``PIT_FILLED``
 [raster]
 A grid of elevation values.
This is usually the output of the **"Pit Remove"** tool, in
which case it is elevations with pits removed.
Pits are low elevation areas in digital elevation models
(DEMs) that are completely surrounded by higher terrain.
They are generally taken to be artifacts of the digitation
process that interfere with the processing of flow across DEMs.
So they are removed by raising their elevation to the point
where they just drain off the domain.
This step is not essential if you have reason to believe that
the pits in your DEM are real.
If a few pits actually exist and so should not be removed,
while at the same time others are believed to be artifacts
that need to be removed, the actual pits should have NODATA
elevation values inserted at their lowest point.
NODATA values serve to define edges of the domain in the flow
field, and elevations are only raised to where flow is off an
edge, so an internal NODATA value will stop a pit from being
removed, if necessary.
*  **Dinfinity flow directions**
 ``DINF_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output flow direction raster.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
*  **Dinfinity slope**
 ``DINF_SLOPE``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output slope raster.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Dinfinity flow directions**
 ``DINF_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
 A grid of flow directions based on the Dinfinity flow
method using the steepest slope of a triangular facet.
Flow direction is determined as the direction of the steepest
downward slope on the 8 triangular facets of a 3x3 block
centered grid.
Flow direction is encoded as an angle in radians,
counterclockwise from east as a continuous (floating point)
quantity between 0 and 2π.
The resulting flow in a grid is then usually interpreted as
being proportioned between the two neighboring cells that define
the triangular facet with the steepest downward slope.
*  **Dinfinity slope**
 ``DINF_SLOPE``
 [raster]
 A grid of slope evaluated using the Dinfinity method described
in Tarboton, D. G., (1997), "A New Method for the Determination
of Flow Directions and Contributing Areas in Grid Digital
Elevation Models", Water Resources Research, 33(2): 309319.
This is the steepest outwards slope on one of eight triangular
facets centered at each grid cell, measured as drop/distance,
i.e. tan of the slope angle.
D8 Contributing Area

Description
...........
Calculates a grid of contributing areas using the single direction D8 flow model.
The contribution of each grid cell is taken as one (or when the optional weight
grid is used, the value from the weight grid). The contributing area for each
grid cell is taken as its own contribution plus the contribution from upslope
neighbors that drain in to it according to the D8 flow model.
If the optional outlet point shapefile is used, only the outlet cells and the
cells upslope (by the D8 flow model) of them are in the domain to be evaluated.
By default, the tool checks for edge contamination. This is defined as the
possibility that a contributing area value may be underestimated due to grid
cells outside of the domain not being counted. This occurs when drainage is
inwards from the boundaries or areas with "no data" values for elevation. The
algorithm recognizes this and reports "no data" for the contributing area. It is
common to see streaks of "no data" values extending inwards from boundaries
along flow paths that enter the domain at a boundary. This is the desired effect
and indicates that contributing area for these grid cells is unknown due to it
being dependent on terrain outside of the domain of data available. Edge
contamination checking may be turned off in cases where you know this is not an
issue or want to ignore these problems, if for example, the DEM has been clipped
along a watershed outline.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **D8 flow directions**
 ``D8_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
 A grid of D8 flow directions which are defined, for each
cell, as the direction of the one of its eight adjacent or
diagonal neighbors with the steepest downward slope.
This grid can be obtained as the output of the
**"D8 Flow Directions"** tool.
*  **Outlets**
Optional
 ``OUTLETS``
 [vector: point]
 A point shapefile defining the outlets of interest.
If this input file is used, only the cells upslope of these
outlet cells are considered to be within the domain being
evaluated.
*  **Weight grid**
Optional
 ``WEIGHT_GRID``
 [raster]
 A grid giving contribution to flow for each cell.
These contributions (also sometimes referred to as weights
or loadings) are used in the contributing area accumulation.
If this input file is not used, the contribution to flow
will assumed to be one for each grid cell.
*  **Check for edge contamination**
 ``EDGE_CONTAMINATION``
 [boolean]
Default: True
 A flag that indicates whether the tool should check for edge
contamination.
Edge contamination is defined as the possibility that a
contributing area value may be underestimated due to the fact
that grid cells outside of the domain have not been evaluated.
This occurs when drainage is inwards from the boundaries or
areas with NODATA values for elevation.
The algorithm recognizes this and reports NODATA for the
impated cells.
It is common to see streaks of NODATA values extending inwards
from boundaries along flow paths that enter the domain at a
boundary.
This is the desired effect and indicates that contributing area
for these grid cells is unknown due to it being dependent on
terrain outside of the domain of available data.
Edge contamination checking may be turned off in cases where
you know this is not an issue, or want to ignore these
problems, if for example, the DEM has been clipped along a
watershed outline.
*  **D8 specific catchment area**
 ``D8_CONTRIB_AREA``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output raster. One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **D8 specific catchment area**
 ``D8_CONTRIB_AREA``
 [raster]
 A grid of contributing area values calculated as the cells own
contribution plus the contribution from upslope neighbors that
drain in to it according to the D8 flow model.
D8 Flow Directions

Description
...........
Creates 2 grids. The first contains the flow direction from each grid cell to one
of its adjacent or diagonal neighbors, calculated using the direction of steepest
descent. The second contain the slope, as evaluated in the direction of steepest
descent, and is reported as drop/distance, i.e. tan of the angle. Flow direction
is reported as NODATA for any grid cell adjacent to the edge of the DEM domain,
or adjacent to a NODATA value in the DEM. In flat areas, flow directions are
assigned away from higher ground and towards lower ground using the method of
Garbrecht and Martz (1997). The D8 flow direction algorithm may be applied to a
DEM that has not had its pits filled, but it will then result in NODATA values
for flow direction and slope at the lowest point of each pit.
D8 Flow Direction Coding:
* 1  East
* 2  Northeast
* 3  North
* 4  Northwest
* 5  West
* 6  Southwest
* 7  South
* 8  Southeast
.. figure:: img/d8index.gif
:align: center
:width: 30em
The flow direction routing across flat areas is performed according to the method
described by Garbrecht, J. and L. W. Martz, (1997), "The Assignment of Drainage
Direction Over Flat Surfaces in Raster Digital Elevation Models", Journal of
Hydrology, 193: 204213.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Pit filled elevation**
 ``PIT_FILLED``
 [raster]
 A grid of elevation values.
This is usually the output of the **"Pit Remove"** tool, in
which case it is elevations with pits removed.
Pits are low elevation areas in digital elevation models
(DEMs) that are completely surrounded by higher terrain.
They are generally taken to be artifacts of the digitation
process that interfere with the processing of flow across DEMs.
So they are removed by raising their elevation to the point
where they just drain off the domain.
This step is not essential if you have reason to believe that
the pits in your DEM are real.
If a few pits actually exist and so should not be removed,
while at the same time others are believed to be artifacts
that need to be removed, the actual pits should have NODATA
elevation values inserted at their lowest point.
NODATA values serve to define edges of the domain in the flow
field, and elevations are only raised to where flow is off an
edge, so an internal NODATA value will stop a pit from being
removed, if necessary.
*  **D8 flow directions**
 ``D8_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output flow direction raster.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
*  **D8 slope**
 ``D8_SLOPE``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output slope raster.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **D8 flow directions**
 ``D8_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
 A grid of D8 flow directions which are defined, for each
cell, as the direction of the one of its eight adjacent or
diagonal neighbors with the steepest downward slope.
*  **D8 slope**
 ``D8_SLOPE``
 [raster]
 A grid giving slope in the D8 flow direction.
This is measured as drop/distance.
Grid Network

Description
...........
Creates 3 grids that contain for each grid cell: 1) the longest path, 2) the total
path, and 3) the Strahler order number. These values are derived from the network
defined by the D8 flow model.
The longest upslope length is the length of the flow path from the furthest cell
that drains to each cell. The total upslope path length is the length of the
entire grid network upslope of each grid cell. Lengths are measured between cell
centers taking into account cell size and whether the direction is adjacent or
diagonal.
Strahler order is defined as follows: A network of flow paths is defined by the
D8 Flow Direction grid. Source flow paths have a Strahler order number of one.
When two flow paths of different order join the order of the downstream flow path
is the order of the highest incoming flow path. When two flow paths of equal
order join the downstream flow path order is increased by 1. When more than two
flow paths join the downstream flow path order is calculated as the maximum of
the highest incoming flow path order or the second highest incoming flow path
order + 1. This generalizes the common definition to cases where more than two
flow paths join at a point.
Where the optional mask grid and threshold value are input, the function is
evaluated only considering grid cells that lie in the domain with mask grid value
greater than or equal to the threshold value. Source (first order) grid cells are
taken as those that do not have any other grid cells from inside the domain
draining in to them, and only when two of these flow paths join is order
propagated according to the ordering rules. Lengths are also only evaluated
counting paths within the domain greater than or equal to the threshold.
If the optional outlet point shapefile is used, only the outlet cells and the
cells upslope (by the D8 flow model) of them are in the domain to be evaluated.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **D8 flow directions**
 ``D8_FLOWDIR``
 [raster]
 A grid of D8 flow directions which are defined, for each
cell, as the direction of the one of its eight adjacent or
diagonal neighbors with the steepest downward slope.
This grid can be obtained as the output of the
**"D8 Flow Directions"** tool.
*  **Mask Grid**
Optional
 ``MASK_GRID``
 [raster]
 A grid that is used to determine the domain do be analyzed.
If the mask grid value >= mask threshold (see below), then
the cell will be included in the domain.
While this tool does not have an edge contamination flag,
if edge contamination analysis is needed, then a mask grid
from a function like **"D8 Contributing Area"** that does
support edge contamination can be used to achieve the same
result.
*  **Mask threshold**
Optional
 ``THRESHOLD``
 [number]
Default: 100.0
 This input parameter is used in the calculation mask grid
value >= mask threshold to determine if the grid cell is
in the domain to be analyzed.
*  **Outlets**
Optional
 ``OUTLETS``
 [vector: point]
 A point shapefile defining the outlets of interest.
If this input file is used, only the cells upslope of these
outlet cells are considered to be within the domain being
evaluated.
*  **Longest upslope length**
 ``LONGEST_PATH``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output raster with total upslope
lengths.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
*  **Total upslope length**
 ``TOTAL_PATH``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output raster with upslope lengths.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
*  **Strahler network order**
 ``STRAHLER_ORDER``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the output raster with Strahler network
order.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Longest upslope length**
 ``LONGEST_PATH``
 [raster]
 A grid that gives the length of the longest upslope D8 flow
path terminating at each grid cell.
Lengths are measured between cell centers taking into account
cell size and whether the direction is adjacent or diagonal.
*  **Total upslope length**
 ``TOTAL_PATH``
 [raster]
 The total upslope path length is the length of the entire
D8 flow grid network upslope of each grid cell.
Lengths are measured between cell centers taking into account
cell size and whether the direction is adjacent or diagonal.
*  **Strahler network order**
 ``STRAHLER_ORDER``
 [raster]
 A grid giving the Strahler order number for each cell.
A network of flow paths is defined by the D8 Flow Direction
grid.
Source flow paths have a Strahler order number of one.
When two flow paths of different order join the order of the
downstream flow path is the order of the highest incoming flow
path.
When two flow paths of equal order join the downstream flow
path order is increased by 1.
When more than two flow paths join the downstream flow path
order is calculated as the maximum of the highest incoming
flow path order or the second highest incoming flow path order
+ 1.
This generalizes the common definition to cases where more
than two flow paths join at a point.
Pit Remove

Description
...........
Identifies all pits in the DEM and raises their elevation to the level of the
lowest pour point around their edge. Pits are low elevation areas in digital
elevation models (DEMs) that are completely surrounded by higher terrain. They
are generally taken to be artifacts that interfere with the routing of flow
across DEMs, so are removed by raising their elevation to the point where they
drain off the edge of the domain. The pour point is the lowest point on the
boundary of the "watershed" draining to the pit. This step is not essential if
you have reason to believe that the pits in your DEM are real. If a few pits
actually exist and so should not be removed, while at the same time others are
believed to be artifacts that need to be removed, the actual pits should have
NODATA elevation values inserted at their lowest point. NODATA values serve
to define edges in the domain, and elevations are only raised to where flow is
off an edge, so an internal NODATA value will stop a pit from being removed,
if necessary.
Parameters
..........
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Elevation**
 ``ELEVATION``
 [raster]
 A digital elevation model (DEM) grid to serve as the base
input for the terrain analysis and stream delineation.
*  **Depression mask**
Optional
 ``DEPRESSION_MASK``
 [raster]

*  **Consider only 4 way neighbors**
 ``FOUR_NEIGHBOURS``
 [boolean]
Default: False

*  **Pit removed elevation**
 ``PIT_FILLED``
 [raster]
Default: ``[Save to temporary file]``
 Specification of the (pit filled) output raster.
One of:
* Save to a Temporary File
* Save to File...
The file encoding can also be changed here.
Outputs
.......
.. listtable::
:headerrows: 1
:widths: 20 20 20 40
:stubcolumns: 0
*  Label
 Name
 Type
 Description
*  **Pit removed elevation**
 ``PIT_FILLED``
 [raster]
 A grid of elevation values with pits removed so that flow
is routed off of the domain.