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Загрузка слоёв

Давайте загрузим несколько слоёв с данными. В QGIS слои делятся на векторные и растровые. Кроме того, существуют пользовательские типы слоёв, но их обсуждение выходит за рамки этой книги.

Векторные слои

To load a vector layer, specify layer’s data source identifier, name for the layer and provider’s name:

layer = QgsVectorLayer(data_source, layer_name, provider_name)
if not layer.isValid():
  print "Layer failed to load!"

Идентификатор источника данных это строка, специфичная для каждого провайдера векторных данных. Имя слоя используется в виджете списка слоёв. Необходимо проверять успешно ли завершилась загрузка слоя или нет. В случае каких-либо ошибок возвращается неправильный объект.

The quickest way to open and display a vector layer in QGIS is the addVectorLayer function of the QgisInterface:

layer = iface.addVectorLayer("/path/to/shapefile/file.shp", "layer_name_you_like", "ogr")
if not layer:
  print "Layer failed to load!"

This creates a new layer and adds it to the map layer registry (making it appear in the layer list) in one step. The function returns the layer instance or None if the layer couldn’t be loaded.

Ниже показано как получить доступ к различным источникам данных используя провайдеры векторных данных:

  • OGR library (shapefiles and many other file formats) — data source is the path to the file

    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer("/path/to/shapefile/file.shp", "layer_name_you_like", "ogr")
    
  • PostGIS database — data source is a string with all information needed to create a connection to PostgreSQL database. QgsDataSourceURI class can generate this string for you. Note that QGIS has to be compiled with Postgres support, otherwise this provider isn’t available.

    uri = QgsDataSourceURI()
    # set host name, port, database name, username and password
    uri.setConnection("localhost", "5432", "dbname", "johny", "xxx")
    # set database schema, table name, geometry column and optionally
    # subset (WHERE clause)
    uri.setDataSource("public", "roads", "the_geom", "cityid = 2643")
    
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer(uri.uri(), "layer_name_you_like", "postgres")
    
  • CSV or other delimited text files — to open a file with a semicolon as a delimiter, with field “x” for x-coordinate and field “y” with y-coordinate you would use something like this

    uri = "/some/path/file.csv?delimiter=%s&xField=%s&yField=%s" % (";", "x", "y")
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer(uri, "layer_name_you_like", "delimitedtext")
    

    Note: from QGIS version 1.7 the provider string is structured as a URL, so the path must be prefixed with file://. Also it allows WKT (well known text) formatted geometries as an alternative to “x” and “y” fields, and allows the coordinate reference system to be specified. For example

    uri = "file:///some/path/file.csv?delimiter=%s&crs=epsg:4723&wktField=%s" % (";", "shape")
    
  • GPX files — the “gpx” data provider reads tracks, routes and waypoints from gpx files. To open a file, the type (track/route/waypoint) needs to be specified as part of the url

    uri = "path/to/gpx/file.gpx?type=track"
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer(uri, "layer_name_you_like", "gpx")
    
  • SpatiaLite database — supported from QGIS v1.1. Similarly to PostGIS databases, QgsDataSourceURI can be used for generation of data source identifier

    uri = QgsDataSourceURI()
    uri.setDatabase('/home/martin/test-2.3.sqlite')
    schema = ''
    table = 'Towns'
    geom_column = 'Geometry'
    uri.setDataSource(schema, table, geom_column)
    
    display_name = 'Towns'
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer(uri.uri(), display_name, 'spatialite')
    
  • MySQL WKB-based geometries, through OGR — data source is the connection string to the table

    uri = "MySQL:dbname,host=localhost,port=3306,user=root,password=xxx|layername=my_table"
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer( uri, "my_table", "ogr" )
    
  • WFS connection:. the connection is defined with a URI and using the WFS provider

    uri = "http://localhost:8080/geoserver/wfs?srsname=EPSG:23030&typename=union&version=1.0.0&request=GetFeature&service=WFS",
    vlayer = QgsVectorLayer("my_wfs_layer", "WFS")
    

    The uri can be created using the standard urllib library.

    params = {
        'service': 'WFS',
        'version': '1.0.0',
        'request': 'GetFeature',
        'typename': 'union',
        'srsname': "EPSG:23030"
    }
    uri = 'http://localhost:8080/geoserver/wfs?' + urllib.unquote(urllib.urlencode(params))
    

Растровые слои

For accessing raster files, GDAL library is used. It supports a wide range of file formats. In case you have troubles with opening some files, check whether your GDAL has support for the particular format (not all formats are available by default). To load a raster from a file, specify its file name and base name

fileName = "/path/to/raster/file.tif"
fileInfo = QFileInfo(fileName)
baseName = fileInfo.baseName()
rlayer = QgsRasterLayer(fileName, baseName)
if not rlayer.isValid():
  print "Layer failed to load!"

Similarly to vector layers, raster layers can be loaded using the addRasterLayer function of the QgisInterface:

iface.addRasterLayer("/path/to/raster/file.tif", "layer_name_you_like")

This creates a new layer and adds it to the map layer registry (making it appear in the layer list) in one step.

Raster layers can also be created from a WCS service.

layer_name = 'modis'
uri = QgsDataSourceURI()
uri.setParam('url', 'http://demo.mapserver.org/cgi-bin/wcs')
uri.setParam("identifier", layer_name)
rlayer = QgsRasterLayer(str(uri.encodedUri()), 'my_wcs_layer', 'wcs')

detailed URI settings can be found in provider documentation

Alternatively you can load a raster layer from WMS server. However currently it’s not possible to access GetCapabilities response from API — you have to know what layers you want

urlWithParams = 'url=http://wms.jpl.nasa.gov/wms.cgi&layers=global_mosaic&styles=pseudo&format=image/jpeg&crs=EPSG:4326'
rlayer = QgsRasterLayer(urlWithParams, 'some layer name', 'wms')
if not rlayer.isValid():
  print "Layer failed to load!"

Список слоёв карты

Если вы хотите использовать открытые слои при отрисовке карты — не забудьте добавить их к списку слоёв карты. Список слоёв карты станет их владельцем, а получить доступ к ним можно будет из любой части приложения по уникальному идентификатору. При удалении слоя из списка слоёв карты, происходит его уничтожение.

Adding a layer to the registry

QgsMapLayerRegistry.instance().addMapLayer(layer)

Layers are destroyed automatically on exit, however if you want to delete the layer explicitly, use

QgsMapLayerRegistry.instance().removeMapLayer(layer_id)

For a list of loaded layers and layer ids, use

QgsMapLayerRegistry.instance().mapLayers()
TODO:
More about map layer registry?