Outdated version of the documentation. Find the latest one here.

7.1. Lesson: Reprojectarea și Transformarea Datelor

Haideți să vorbim din nou despre Sistemele de Coordonate de Referință (CRS-uri). Am atins acest subiect mai înainte, dar nu am discutat ce înseamnă practic.

Scopul acestei lecții: De a reproiecta și transforma seturile de date vectoriale.

7.1.1. basic Follow Along: Proiecții

CRS-ul folosit în acest moment pentru toate datele, precum și pentru harta în sine, este denumit WGS84. Acesta este un Sistem de Coordonate Geografic (GCS) utilizat, în mod comun, la reprezentarea datelor. Dar există o problemă, după cum vom vedea.

  • Save your current map.
  • Then open the map of the world which you’ll find under exercise_data/world/world.qgs.
  • Zoom in to South Africa by using the Zoom In tool.
  • Try setting a scale in the Scale field, which is in the Status Bar along the bottom of the screen. While over South Africa, set this value to 1:5000000 (one to five million).
  • Pan around the map while keeping an eye on the Scale field.

Notice the scale changing? That’s because you’re moving away from the one point that you zoomed into at 1:5000000, which was at the center of your screen. All around that point, the scale is different.

Pentru a înțelege de ce, gândiți-vă la un glob al Pământului. Acesta are linii care pornesc de la Nord înspre Sud. Aceste linii longitudinale sunt situate departe una de alta la ecuator, dar se întâlnesc la poli.

In a GCS, you’re working on this sphere, but your screen is flat. When you try to represent the sphere on a flat surface, distortion occurs, similar to what would happen if you cut open a tennis ball and tried to flatten it out. What this means on a map is that the longitude lines stay equally far apart from each other, even at the poles (where they are supposed to meet). This means that, as you travel away from the equator on your map, the scale of the objects that you see gets larger and larger. What this means for us, practically, is that there is no constant scale on our map!

To solve this, let’s use a Projected Coordinate System (PCS) instead. A PCS “projects” or converts the data in a way that makes allowance for the scale change and corrects it. Therefore, to keep the scale constant, we should reproject our data to use a PCS.

7.1.2. basic Follow Along: Reproiectarea “Din-Zbor”

QGIS allows you to reproject data “on the fly”. What this means is that even if the data itself is in another CRS, QGIS can project it as if it were in a CRS of your choice.

  • To enable “on the fly” projection, click on the CRS Status button in the Status Bar along the bottom of the QGIS window:
  • In the dialog that appears, check the box next to Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation.
  • Type the word global into the Filter field. One CRS (NSIDC EASE-Grid Global) should appear in the list below.
  • Click on the NSIDC EASE-Grid Global to select it, then click OK.
  • Observați modul în care forma Africii de Sud se schimbă. Toate proiecțiile lucrează prin schimbarea formelor aparente ale obiectelor de pe Terra.

  • Zoom in to a scale of 1:5000000 again, as before.
  • Deplasați un pic harta.

  • Observați că scara rămâne la fel!

Reproiectarea “din zbor” este folosită, de asemenea, pentru a combina seturile de date aflate în diverse CRS-uri

  • Deactivate “on the fly” re-projection again:
    • Click on the CRS Status button again.
    • Un-check the Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation box.
    • Clicking OK.
  • In QGIS 2.0, the ‘on the fly’ reprojection is automatically activated when layers with different CRSs are loaded in the map. To understand what ‘on the fly’ reprojection does, deactivate this automatic setting:
    • Go to Settings ‣ Options...
    • On the left panel of the dialog, select CRS.
    • Un-check Automatically enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection if layers have different CRS.
    • Click OK.
  • Add another vector layer to your map which has the data for South Africa only. You’ll find it as exercise_data/world/RSA.shp.

Ce observați?

The layer isn’t visible! But that’s easy to fix, right?

  • Right-click on the RSA layer in the Layers list.
  • Select Zoom to Layer Extent.

OK, so now we see South Africa... but where is the rest of the world?

It turns out that we can zoom between these two layers, but we can’t ever see them at the same time. That’s because their Coordinate Reference Systems are so different. The continents dataset is in degrees, but the RSA dataset is in meters. So, let’s say that a given point in Cape Town in the RSA dataset is about 4 100 000 meters away from the equator. But in the continents dataset, that same point is about 33.9 degrees away from the equator.

This is the same distance - but QGIS doesn’t know that. You haven’t told it to reproject the data. So as far as it’s concerned, the version of South Africa that we see in the RSA dataset has Cape Town at the correct distance of 4 100 000 meters from the equator. But in the continents dataset, Cape Town is only 33.9 meters away from the equator! You can see why this is a problem.

QGIS doesn’t know where Cape Town is supposed to be - that’s what the data should be telling it. If the data tells QGIS that Cape Town is 34 meters away from the equator and that South Africa is only about 12 meters from north to south, then that is what QGIS will draw.

To correct this:

  • Click on the CRS Status button again and switch Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation on again as before.
  • Zoom to the extents of the RSA dataset.

Now, because they’re made to project in the same CRS, the two datasets fit perfectly:


When combining data from different sources, it’s important to remember that they might not be in the same CRS. “On the fly” reprojection helps you to display them together.

Before you go on, you probably want to have the ‘on the fly’ reprojection to be automatically activated whenever you open datasets having different CRS:

  • Open again Settings ‣ Options... and select CRS.
  • Activate Automatically enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection if layers have different CRS.

7.1.3. moderate Follow Along: Salvarea unui Set de Date într-un Alt CRS

Remember when you calculated areas for the buildings in the Classification lesson? You did it so that you could classify the buildings according to area.

  • Open your usual map again (containing the Swellendam data).
  • Open the attribute table for the buildings layer.
  • Scroll to the right until you see the AREA field.

Notice how the areas are all very small; probably zero. This is because these areas are given in degrees - the data isn’t in a Projected Coordinate System. In order to calculate the area for the farms in square meters, the data has to be in square meters as well. So, we’ll need to reproject it.

But it won’t help to just use ‘on the fly’ reprojection. ‘On the fly’ does what it says - it doesn’t change the data, it just reprojects the layers as they appear on the map. To truly reproject the data itself, you need to export it to a new file using a new projection.

  • Right-click on the buildings layer in the Layers list.
  • Select Save As... in the menu that appears. You will be shown the Save vector layer as... dialog.
  • Click on the Browse button next to the Save as field.
  • Navigate to exercise_data/ and specify the name of the new layer as buildings_reprojected.shp.
  • Leave the Encoding unchanged.
  • Change the value of the Layer CRS dropdown to Selected CRS.
  • Click the Browse button beneath the dropdown.
  • The CRS Selector dialog will now appear.
  • In its Filter field, search for 34S.
  • Choose WGS 84 / UTM zone 34S from the list.
  • Leave the Symbology export unchanged.

The Save vector layer as... dialog now looks like this:

  • Click OK.
  • Start a new map and load the reprojected layer you just created.

Refer back to the lesson on Classification to remember how you calculated areas.

  • Update (or add) the AREA field by running the same expression as before:

This will add an AREA field with the size of each building in square meters

  • To calculate the area in another unit of measurement, for example hectares, use the AREA field to create a second column:

Look at the new values in your attribute table. This is much more useful, as people actually quote building size in meters, not in degrees. This is why it’s a good idea to reproject your data, if necessary, before calculating areas, distances, and other values that are dependent on the spatial properties of the layer.

7.1.4. hard Follow Along: Crearea Propriei Dvs. Proiecții

Există mai multe proiecții decât cele incluse în QGIS în mod implicit. De asemenea, puteți crea propriile proiecții.

  • Start a new map.
  • Load the world/oceans.shp dataset.
  • Go to Settings ‣ Custom CRS... and you’ll see this dialog:
  • Click on the Add new CRS button to create a new projection.

An interesting projection to use is called Van der Grinten I.

  • Enter its name in the Name field.

Această proiecție reprezintă Pământul pe un teren circular, în locul uneia dreptunghiulară, la fel ca majoritatea celorlalte proiecții.

  • For its parameters, use the following string:

+proj=vandg +lon_0=0 +x_0=0 +y_0=0 +R_A +a=6371000 +b=6371000 +units=m +no_defs

  • Click OK.
  • Enable “on the fly” reprojection.
  • Choose your newly defined projection (search for its name in the Filter field).
  • După aplicarea acestei proiecții, harta va fi reproiectată astfel:


7.1.5. In Conclusion

Diferite proiecții sunt utile pentru scopuri diferite. Prin alegerea proiecția corectă, vă puteți asigura că entitățile de pe hartă sunt reprezentate cu precizie.

7.1.6. Further Reading

Materials for the Advanced section of this lesson were taken from this article.

Further information on Coordinate Reference Systems is available here.

7.1.7. What’s Next?

În lecția următoare veți învăța cum să analizați datele vectoriale, folosind diverse instrumente de analiză vectorială din QGIS.