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Manipulation de la géométrie

Points, linestrings and polygons that represent a spatial feature are commonly referred to as geometries. In QGIS they are represented with the QgsGeometry class.

Parfois, une entité correspond à une collection d’éléments géométriques simples (d’un seul tenant). Une telle géométrie est appelée multi-parties. Si elle ne contient qu’un seul type de géométrie, il s’agit de multi-points, de multi-lignes ou de multi-polygones. Par exemple, un pays constitué de plusieurs îles peut être représenté par un multi-polygone.

Les coordonnées des géométries peuvent être dans n’importe quel système de coordonnées de référence (SCR). Lorsqu’on accède aux entités d’une couche, les géométries correspondantes auront leurs coordonnées dans le SCR de la couche.

Description and specifications of all possible geometries construction and relationships are available in the OGC Simple Feature Access Standards for advanced details.

Construction de géométrie

There are several options for creating a geometry:

  • à partir des coordonnées

    gPnt = QgsGeometry.fromPoint(QgsPoint(1,1))
    gLine = QgsGeometry.fromPolyline([QgsPoint(1, 1), QgsPoint(2, 2)])
    gPolygon = QgsGeometry.fromPolygon([[QgsPoint(1, 1), QgsPoint(2, 2),
                                        QgsPoint(2, 1)]])

    Coordinates are given using QgsPoint class.

    Polyline (Linestring) is represented by a list of points. Polygon is represented by a list of linear rings (i.e. closed linestrings). First ring is outer ring (boundary), optional subsequent rings are holes in the polygon.

    Les géométries multi-parties sont d’un niveau plus complexe: les multipoints sont une succession de points, les multilignes une succession de lignes et les multipolygones une succession de polygones.

  • depuis un Well-Known-Text (WKT)

    gem = QgsGeometry.fromWkt("POINT(3 4)")
  • depuis un Well-Known-Binary (WKB)

    >>> g = QgsGeometry()
    >>> wkb = '010100000000000000000045400000000000001440'.decode('hex')
    >>> g.fromWkb(wkb)
    >>> g.exportToWkt()
    'Point (42 5)'

Accéder à la Géométrie

First, you should find out geometry type, wkbType() method is the one to use — it returns a value from QGis.WkbType enumeration

>>> gPnt.wkbType() == QGis.WKBPoint
>>> gLine.wkbType() == QGis.WKBLineString
>>> gPolygon.wkbType() == QGis.WKBPolygon
>>> gPolygon.wkbType() == QGis.WKBMultiPolygon

As an alternative, one can use type() method which returns a value from QGis.GeometryType enumeration. There is also a helper function isMultipart() to find out whether a geometry is multipart or not.

To extract information from geometry there are accessor functions for every vector type. How to use accessors

>>> gPnt.asPoint()
(1, 1)
>>> gLine.asPolyline()
[(1, 1), (2, 2)]
>>> gPolygon.asPolygon()
[[(1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1)]]


The tuples (x,y) are not real tuples, they are QgsPoint objects, the values are accessible with x() and y() methods.

For multipart geometries there are similar accessor functions: asMultiPoint(), asMultiPolyline(), asMultiPolygon().

Prédicats et opérations géométriques

QGIS uses GEOS library for advanced geometry operations such as geometry predicates (contains(), intersects(), ...) and set operations (union(), difference(), ...). It can also compute geometric properties of geometries, such as area (in the case of polygons) or lengths (for polygons and lines)

Here you have a small example that combines iterating over the features in a given layer and performing some geometric computations based on their geometries.

# we assume that 'layer' is a polygon layer
features = layer.getFeatures()
for f in features:
  geom = f.geometry()
  print "Area:", geom.area()
  print "Perimeter:", geom.length()

Areas and perimeters don’t take CRS into account when computed using these methods from the QgsGeometry class. For a more powerful area and distance calculation, the QgsDistanceArea class can be used. If projections are turned off, calculations will be planar, otherwise they’ll be done on the ellipsoid.

d = QgsDistanceArea()

print "distance in meters: ", d.measureLine(QgsPoint(10,10),QgsPoint(11,11))

Vous trouverez de nombreux exemples d’algorithmes inclus dans QGIS et utiliser ces méthodes pour analyser et modifier les données vectorielles. Voici des liens vers le code de quelques-uns.

Additional information can be found in following sources: