# Expressions, Filtering and Calculating Values¶

QGIS has some support for parsing of SQL-like expressions. Only a small subset of SQL syntax is supported. The expressions can be evaluated either as boolean predicates (returning True or False) or as functions (returning a scalar value). See Výrazy in the User Manual for a complete list of available functions.

Three basic types are supported:

• number — both whole numbers and decimal numbers, e.g. 123, 3.14
• string — they have to be enclosed in single quotes: 'hello world'
• column reference — when evaluating, the reference is substituted with the actual value of the field. The names are not escaped.

The following operations are available:

• arithmetic operators: +, -, *, /, ^
• parentheses: for enforcing the operator precedence: (1 + 1) * 3
• unary plus and minus: -12, +5
• mathematical functions: sqrt, sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan
• conversion functions: to_int, to_real, to_string, to_date
• geometry functions: \$area, \$length
• geometry handling functions: \$x, \$y, \$geometry, num_geometries, centroid

And the following predicates are supported:

• comparison: =, !=, >, >=, <, <=
• pattern matching: LIKE (using % and _), ~ (regular expressions)
• logical predicates: AND, OR, NOT
• NULL value checking: IS NULL, IS NOT NULL

Examples of predicates:

• 1 + 2 = 3
• sin(angle) > 0
• 'Hello' LIKE 'He%'
• (x > 10 AND y > 10) OR z = 0

Examples of scalar expressions:

• 2 ^ 10
• sqrt(val)
• \$length + 1

## Parsing Expressions¶

```>>> exp = QgsExpression('1 + 1 = 2')
>>> exp.hasParserError()
False
>>> exp = QgsExpression('1 + 1 = ')
>>> exp.hasParserError()
True
>>> exp.parserErrorString()
PyQt4.QtCore.QString(u'syntax error, unexpected \$end')
```

## Evaluating Expressions¶

### Basic Expressions¶

```>>> exp = QgsExpression('1 + 1 = 2')
>>> value = exp.evaluate()
>>> value
1
```

### Expressions with features¶

The following example will evaluate the given expression against a feature. “Column” is the name of the field in the layer.

```>>> exp = QgsExpression('Column = 99')
>>> value = exp.evaluate(feature, layer.pendingFields())
>>> bool(value)
True
```

You can also use QgsExpression.prepare() if you need check more than one feature. Using QgsExpression.prepare() will increase the speed that evaluate takes to run.

```>>> exp = QgsExpression('Column = 99')
>>> exp.prepare(layer.pendingFields())
>>> value = exp.evaluate(feature)
>>> bool(value)
True
```

### Handling errors¶

```exp = QgsExpression("1 + 1 = 2 ")
if exp.hasParserError():
raise Exception(exp.parserErrorString())

value = exp.evaluate()
if exp.hasEvalError():
raise ValueError(exp.evalErrorString())

print value
```

The following example can be used to filter a layer and return any feature that matches a predicate.

```def where(layer, exp):
print "Where"
exp = QgsExpression(exp)
if exp.hasParserError():
raise Exception(exp.parserErrorString())
exp.prepare(layer.pendingFields())
for feature in layer.getFeatures():
value = exp.evaluate(feature)
if exp.hasEvalError():
raise ValueError(exp.evalErrorString())
if bool(value):
yield feature

layer = qgis.utils.iface.activeLayer()
for f in where(layer, 'Test > 1.0'):
print f + " Matches expression"
```